Practice Relating to Rule 59. Improper Use of the Distinctive Emblems of the Geneva Conventions
Ecuador’s Naval Manual (1989), in a chapter entitled “Misuse of protective signs, signals and symbols”, considers it illegal to use transports marked with the red cross or red crescent to carry armed combatants, weapons or ammunition with which to attack or elude enemy forces.
The manual specifies: “Protective signs and symbols may be used only to identify personnel, objects, and activities entitled to the protected status which they designate. Any other use is forbidden by international law.”
The manual further provides: “The following acts constitute war crimes: … misuse, abuse … of the Red Cross emblem, and of similar protective emblems and signs.”
Ecuador’s Emblem Regulation (1972) provides: “The name and emblem of the Red Cross shall be efficiently protected against any abuse.”