Practice Relating to Rule 132. Return of Displaced Persons

Panmunjom Armistice Agreement
Article III(59)(d)(1) of the 1953 Panmunjom Armistice Agreement provides:
The Committee [for Assisting the Return of Displaced Civilians] shall, under the general supervision and direction of the Military Armistice Commission, be responsible for coordinating the specific plans of both sides for assistance to the return of the above-mentioned civilians, and for supervising the execution by both sides of all of the provisions of this Armistice Agreement relating to all the return of the above-mentioned civilians. It shall be the duty of this Committee to make necessary arrangements, including those of transportation, for expediting and coordinating the movement of the above-mentioned civilians; to select the crossing point(s) through which the above-mentioned civilians will cross the Military Demarcation Line; to arrange for security at the crossing point(s); and to carry out such other functions as are required to accomplish the return of the above-mentioned civilians. 
Agreement between the Commander-in-Chief, United Nations Command, on the one hand, and the Supreme Commander of the Korean People’s Army and the Commander of the Chinese People’s Volunteers, on the other hand, concerning a Military Armistice in Korea, Panmunjom, 27 July 1953, Article III(59)(d)(1).
Convention Governing Refugee Problems in Africa
Article V of the 1969 Convention Governing Refugee Problems in Africa provides:
2. The country of asylum, in collaboration with the country of origin, shall make adequate arrangements for the safe return of refugees who request repatriation.
3. The country of origin, on receiving back refugees, shall facilitate their resettlement and grant them the full rights and privileges of nationals of the country, and subject them to the same obligations.
4. Refugees who voluntarily return to their country shall in no way be penalized for having left it for any of the reasons giving rise to refugee situations. Whenever necessary, an appeal shall be made through national information media and through the Administrative Secretary-General of the OAU, inviting refugees to return home and giving assurance that the new circumstances prevailing in their country of origin will enable them to return without risk and to take up a normal and peaceful life without fear of being disturbed or punished, and that the text of such appeal should be given to refugees and clearly explained to them by their country of asylum.
5. Refugees who freely decide to return to their homeland, as a result of such assurances or on their own initiative, shall be given every possible assistance by the country of asylum, the country of origin, voluntary agencies and international and intergovernmental organizations, to facilitate their return. 
Convention Governing the Specific Aspects of Refugee Problems in Africa, adopted by the Sixth Ordinary Session of the OAU Assembly of Heads of State and Government, Addis Ababa, 10 September 1969, Article V.
Quadripartite Agreement on Georgian Refugees and IDPs
In paragraph 5 of the 1994 Quadripartite Agreement on Georgian Refugees and IDPs, the parties decided that:
The principal tasks of the [Quadripartite] Commission shall be to formulate, discuss and approve plans to implement programmes for safe, orderly and voluntary repatriation of the refugees and displaced persons … and for their successful reintegration. Such plans should include registration, transport, basic material assistance for a period of up to six months and rehabilitation assistance. 
Quadripartite Agreement on Voluntary Return of Refugees and Displaced Persons in the Republic of Georgia, between the Abkhaz and Georgian Sides, the Russian Federation and UNHCR, Moscow, 4 April 1994, annexed to Letter dated 5 April 1994 from the permanent representative of Georgia to the UN addressed to the President of the Security Council, UN Doc. S/1994/397, 5 April 1994, Annex II, § 5.
Agreement on Refugees and Displaced Persons annexed to the Dayton Accords
The 1995 Agreement on Refugees and Displaced Persons annexed to the Dayton Accords provides:
Article I. Rights of Refugees and Displaced Persons
2. The Parties shall ensure that refugees and displaced persons are permitted to return in safety, without risk of harassment, intimidation, persecution, or discrimination …
3. The Parties shall take all necessary steps to prevent activities within their territories which would hinder or impede the safe and voluntary return of refugees and displaced persons …
Article II. Creation of Suitable Conditions for Return
1. The Parties undertake to create in their territories the political, economic and social conditions conducive to the voluntary return and harmonious reintegration of refugees and displaced persons. The Parties shall provide all possible assistance to refugees and displaced persons and work to facilitate their voluntary return in a peaceful, orderly and phased manner. 
General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Annex 7, Agreement on Refugees and Displaced Persons, signed by the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and the Republika Srpska, Dayton, 22 November 1995, Articles I(2)–(3) and II(1).
Agreement on Normalization of Relations between Croatia and the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia
Article 7 of the 1996 Agreement on Normalization of Relations between Croatia and the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia specifies: “The Contracting Parties shall ensure conditions for a free and safe return of … displaced persons to their places of residence or other places that they freely choose.” 
Agreement on Normalization of Relations between the Republic of Croatia and the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, Belgrade, 23 August 1996, Article 7.
Agreement of the Joint Working Group on Operational Procedures of Return
The 1997 Agreement of the Joint Working Group on Operational Procedures of Return, concluded between Croatia, UNTAES and UNHCR, provided that until conditions were created for the safe return of Croatian citizens to their places of origin, displaced persons could remain in the houses they were occupying. Under the agreement, all Croatian citizens wishing to return to their homes were first required to register with the Office of Displaced Persons and Refugees (ODPR). The agreement contained a number of detailed conditions that had to be fulfilled by returnees in cooperation with the ODPR, UNTAES and the UNHCR. The agreement made provision for expediting the process of return in principle and stipulated that the confirmation of arrangements for return would be issued within 15 calendar days of registration with the ODPR and that the return should take place as soon as possible thereafter. 
Agreement of the Joint Working Group on the Operational Procedures of Return between Croatia, UNTAES and UNHCR, Osijek, 23 April 1997, annexed to Letter dated 25 April 1997 from the permanent representative of Croatia to the UN addressed to the President of the UN Security Council, UN Doc. S/1997/341, 28 April 1997.
Sudan-IOM Memorandum of Understanding on Darfur
The 2004 Sudan-IOM Memorandum of Understanding on Darfur provides:
1. The government of the Republic of the Sudan and the International Organization for Migration:
1.3 Recognize the importance of adhering to international humanitarian law and international human rights law in all activities related to the implementation of this memorandum of understanding.
1.5 Agree to the establishment of a Management and Coordination Mechanism (MCM) on the voluntary return of internally displaced persons in Darfur. The MCM shall be initially composed of representatives of the Sudanese Government, IOM and the Office of the UN Resident Coordinator/Humanitarian Coordinator, and shall be convened by the second week of September 2004, and
1.6 Coordinate and agree, within the context of the MCM, upon standard operating procedures and criteria required for the implementation of this memorandum of understanding.
These shall be harmonized, as appropriate, with policies and practices concerning the voluntary repatriation of refugees to the Sudan.
3 For its part, the International Organization for Migration undertakes, subject to the availability of adequate resources, to:
3.1 Determine voluntariness and appropriateness of the return of the internally displaced persons to their area of origin in accordance with international humanitarian law, international human rights law and international principles which identify the rights and guarantees relevant to the protection of displaced persons in all phases of displacement, return or resettlement and reintegration,
3.2 Oversee and assist in the voluntary return of internally displaced persons to their homes.
3.3 Bring support to the communities affected by displacement and facilitate the conditions conducive to return,
3.4 Contribute to the reintegration of displaced families,
3.5 Carry out other activities that shall be considered appropriate in restoring peace and normal living conditions in the region.  
Memorandum of Understanding on Darfur between the Government of the Republic of the Sudan and the International Organization for Migration, Khartoum, 21 August 2004, §§ 1, 1.3, 1.5–1.6 and 3–3.5.
Kampala Convention
Article 11(1) of the 2009 Kampala Convention provides:
States Parties shall seek lasting solutions to the problem of their displacement by promoting and creating satisfactory conditions for voluntary return, local integration or relocation on a sustainable basis and in circumstances of safety and dignity. 
African Union Convention for the Protection and Assistance of Internally Displaced Persons in Africa, adopted in Kampala, Uganda, 23 October 2009, Article 11(1).
According to Article 11(3) of the Convention, “State Parties shall cooperate, where appropriate, with African Union and international organizations or humanitarian agencies and civil society organizations” in order to find and implement lasting solutions for sustainable return, local integration or relocation. 
African Union Convention for the Protection and Assistance of Internally Displaced Persons in Africa, adopted in Kampala, Uganda, 23 October 2009, Article 11(3).
Memorandum of Understanding between Iraq and the UN
In paragraphs 2 and 3 of the 1991 Memorandum of Understanding between Iraq and the UN, Iraq welcomed the efforts of the UN to promote the voluntary return home of Iraqi displaced persons and agreed that measures to be taken for the benefit of displaced persons should be based primarily on their personal safety and the provision of humanitarian assistance and relief for their return and normalization of their lives in their places of origin. 
Memorandum of Understanding between Iraq and the United Nations, Baghdad, 18 April 1991, §§ 2 and 3.
Joint Declaration by the Presidents of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and Croatia (September 1992)
Paragraph 2 of the Joint Declaration by the Presidents of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and Croatia (September 1992) states:
Authorities of the Republic of Croatia and the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, in close collaboration with the United Nations Protection Force (UNPROFOR), will undertake urgent, joint measures to ensure the peaceful return to their homes in the United Nations protected areas of all persons displaced therefrom who so wish. To that end, they propose the prompt establishment of a quadripartite mechanism – consisting of authorities of the Government of Croatia, local Serb representatives, representatives of UNPROFOR and the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) – to ensure that this process moves forwards. 
Joint Declaration by President Dobrica Cosić of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and President Franjo Tudjman of the Republic of Croatia, Geneva, 30 September 1992, annexed to Report of the UN Secretary-General on the International Conference on the Former Yugoslavia, UN Doc. S/24795, 11 November 1992, Annex II, § 2.
Joint Declaration by the Presidents of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and Croatia (October 1992)
Paragraph 3 of the Joint Declaration by the Presidents of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and Croatia (October 1992) reaffirmed that the priority task of the quadripartite mechanism established in Paragraph 2 of their Joint Declaration (September 1992) “should be to organize and facilitate the return and the resettlement, under humane conditions, of displaced persons and groups”. 
Joint Declaration by President Dobrica Cosić of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and President Franjo Tudjman of the Republic of Croatia, Geneva, 20 October 1992, annexed to Report of the UN Secretary-General on the International Conference on the Former Yugoslavia, UN Doc. S/24795, 11 November 1992, Annex VI, § 3.
Cotonou Agreement on Liberia
In Article 18(1) of the 1993 Cotonou Agreement on Liberia, the parties committed themselves “to create the conditions that will allow all refugees and displaced persons to, respectively, voluntarily repatriate and return to Liberia to their places of origin or habitual residence under conditions of safety and dignity”. 
Cotonou Peace Agreement on Liberia between the Interim Government of National Unity of Liberia (IGNU) of the first part and the National Patriotic Front of Liberia (NPFL) of the second part and the United Liberation Movement of Liberia for Democracy (ULIMO) of the third part, Cotonou, 25 July 1993, annexed to Letter dated 6 August 1993 from the Chargé d’affaires a.i. of the Permanent Mission of Benin to the UN addressed to the UN Secretary-General, UN Doc. S/26272, 9 August 1993, Article 18(1).
Protocol of Agreement between the Government of the Republic of Rwanda and the Rwandese Patriotic Front on Power-Sharing
The 1992 Protocol of Agreement between the Government of the Republic of Rwanda and the Rwandese Patriotic Front on Power-Sharing provides:
Article 13
The current structure of the Government, namely, the number and appellation of Ministries, shall remain unchanged. However, a Secretariat of State in the Prime Minister’s Office in charge of Social Rehabilitation and Integration shall be established.
It shall be responsible for:
1. Repatriation and social and economic reintegration of the Rwandese refugees who may wish to go back home;
2. A Post-War Rehabilitation Programme as defined under Item 23.D of the present Protocol.
Article 23
The Broad-based Transitional Government shall implement the programme comprising the following:
D. Post-war Rehabilitation Programme
1. Provide humanitarian assistance, especially through the supply of foodstuffs, seeds and some building materials in a bid to contribute in the resettlement of those displaced as a result of the war and social strife encountered since the outbreak of the war, in their original property.
2. Rehabilitate and rebuild the areas devastated by war and social strife encountered since the outbreak of war, especially through mine-clearance and rebuilding of socio-educational and administrative facilities.
3. Set up a programme of assistance to the victims of war (both civilian and military) and of social strife encountered since the outbreak of the war, to the physically handicapped, orphans, widows and widowers. 
Protocol of Agreement between the Government of the Republic of Rwanda and the Rwandese Patriotic Front on Power-Sharing within the Framework of a Broad-Based Transitional Government, signed at Arusha respectively on 30th October, 1992 and on 9th January, 1993, Articles 13(1)–(2) and 23(D), as annexed to the Arusha Peace Agreement between the Government of the Republic of Rwanda and the Rwandese Patriotic Front, Arusha, 4 August 1993.
Protocol of Agreement between the Government of the Republic of Rwanda and the Rwandese Patriotic Front on Repatriation and Resettlement
The 1993 Protocol of Agreement between the Government of the Republic of Rwanda and the Rwandese Patriotic Front on Repatriation and Resettlement provides:
The Government of the Republic of Rwanda on one hand, and the Rwandese Patriotic Front on the other;
Agree on the following provisions on the repatriation of Rwandese refugees and the resettlement of displaced persons.
Chapter I: Repatriation of Rwandese Refugees
Section 1: Voluntary Return and Repatriation
Sub-Section 1: Basic Principles
Article 3
For purposes of settling returnees, the Rwandese Government shall make lands available, upon their identification by the “Commission for Repatriation” so long as they are not currently occupied by individuals.
Sub-Section 2: The Beneficiaries of the Programme for the Return and Repatriation
Article 8
The Programme for the Return and the Repatriation shall be designed solely for Rwandese Refugees.
Shall qualify as a Rwandese refugee:
1. Anyone in possession of documents issued by the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), testifying that the bearer is a Rwandese refugee;
2. Any Rwandese national who declares himself to be a Rwandese refugee, but who is not registered with the Office of the UNHCR.
Sub-Section 3: Repatriation Procedures
Article 9
Upon the recommendation of the Secretariat of State for Rehabilitation and Social Integration, the Broad-Based Transitional Government shall set up a Commission for Repatriation composed of Government, UNHCR, OAU and Refugee representatives.
Article 10
The Commission shall have, as a general mandate, to finalize and to implement a programme for the repatriation and reintegration of returnees.
The concrete missions of the Commission shall be as follows:
1. Conduct a socio-economic survey of refugees;
2. Organize a pre-repatriation census and registration of returnees;
3. Conduct an information and sensitization campaign both to the refugee community and the population within the country
4. Identify settlement sites, supervise the distribution of plots and establishment of basic infrastructures such as Reception Centres, Health Centres, Educational Centres, etc.;
5. Make travel arrangements for all returnees, where necessary, and arrangements for the transport of their property;
6. Supervise all kinds of assistance for the returnees, such as food aid, farming tools, building materials, domestic items, seeds, etc.;
That Commission may set up Committees, where necessary, for the execution of some of its missions.
Article 11
For border crossings, a list of items subject to an export ban in the country of asylum and to an import ban in Rwanda shall be communicated in advance to refugees opting for repatriation.
Property and assets of returnees shall be exempted from all import duties and taxes, except for commercial goods.
The exchange regulations shall be communicated to returnees and facilitated by the appropriate authorities.
Customs formalities shall also be specified by the country of asylum and by Rwanda.
The Secretariat of State for Rehabilitation and Social Integration, in coordination with Immigration and Emigration Services, shall provide facilities at border posts and at the International airport, for the reception of returnees who shall have opted to go back home with their own means.
Sub-Section 4: Assistance
Article 12
The repatriation funding programme shall provide for provisional accommodation centres on the settlement sites in rural or in urban areas, in existing or those to be built, on condition that the latter are built for ultimate use.
Returnees at that time shall be fully taken care of, including an initial free medical check-up.
Article 13
Returnees shall provisionally be accommodated in shelters built on plots allocated to them, but they shall rapidly be given a set of building materials to enable them to build their own houses and design them in accordance with model development schemes drawn up by the Commission for Repatriation.
Article 14
Upon their arrival in the country, repatriates shall each be paid a small amount of money to enable them to meet vital needs not catered for by the aid programme.
Article 15
With the assistance of the International Community, the Rwandese Government shall provide assistance to the returnees, in the following areas:
1. food aid;
2. domestic items;
3. farming tools;
4. building materials;
5. health;
6. education.
The same assistance shall equally be provided to those returnees who may go back to their places of origin.
Article 16
Food aid shall be provided for a period of at least 15 months, after which conditions for the continued supply of that aid shall be reviewed.
Article 17
Each family of returnees shall be provided with basic items such as kitchen utensils and bed and beddings.
Article 18
The programme for the settlement of returnees shall also avail a set of farming tools and seeds, preferably selected to meet the soil and climate requirements in the area. In so doing, it shall enable the repatriated farmers to undertake farming activities as soon as possible.
Article 19
The repatriation programme shall also include the supply of medicines and various equipment for the existing or newly established Health Centres.
Vulnerable groups, i.e. women, children, the aged people and the handicapped shall be specifically taken care of.
Article 20
A programme of assistance for children admitted in the educational system shall be established and tailored in such a way as to cater for school fees, funds for the purchase of uniforms and school equipment for two academic years.
Article 21
The returnees who shall take up activities other than farming, but are not able to take care of themselves, shall each benefit from some of the assistance programmes mentioned above especially:
1. Accommodation and food aid for a period of 6 months;
2. basic items such as kitchen utensils, bed and beddings
The Rwandese Government shall establish, through the Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs and the Secretariat of State for Rehabilitation and Social Integration, mechanisms for the orientation and follow-up of job seekers.
Sub-Section 5: Integration Modalities
Article 22
Returnees may benefit from opportunities availed by the Development Projects designed for the enhancement of employment in the public and private sectors, in the same conditions as residents.
Article 23
The Rwandese Government shall undertake negotiations with international funding institutions, within the framework of the Structural Adjustment Programme (SAP), so that the absorption capacities of the Public Sector could be enhanced.
There are certain sectors, however, which already hold out employment opportunities, such as Education, Health and the Judiciary.
A returnee who shall be integrated in the public sector shall be employed at the level to be determined on the basis of their qualification and professional experience.
Employment shall not be subjected to any precondition and criteria other than the age for employment and retirement.
Article 24
Returnees who have contributed to the Social Security in Rwanda may claim their dues, either for themselves or their beneficiaries.
As for those who have been contributing to the Social Security abroad, the Rwandese Government shall negotiate with the countries concerned so as to arrange for the compensation or transfer of their dues.
Article 25
Lack of knowledge of Kinyarwanda or French shall not constitute an obstacle to employment and discharge of duties within the public sector.
During the first three years of service, with effect from the date of appointment, the returnees shall use those languages they are most familiar with, and shall take intensive French or Kinyarwanda courses. At the end of that period, consideration of this facility shall be re-examined in order to determine whether it would be maintained or not.
To that effect, a programme of linguistic support as well as translation and interpretation services shall be organized, according to the needs, soon after the establishment of the Broad-Based Transitional Government, using funds provided for in the Plan of Action for returnees or any other funds.
Article 26
The existing Commissions on the Equivalence of diplomas shall include qualified personnel among returnees and shall pay special attention to that problem.
Diplomas and certificates internationally recognised shall be considered for purposes of employment in the educational institutions or appointment to professional posts, in accordance with the UNESCO grading regulations and systems.
Article 27
The access to employment opportunities in the Private Sector and the establishment of new enterprises in the country have been liberalized within the framework of the Structural Adjustment Programme (SAP). They shall be open to returnees without any preconditions, and under the same conditions as residents.
Government role in that field will be to reactivate support to existing firms, promote new investments and simplify formalities required to get started in the Private Sector. The Plan of Action shall also include a Guarantee Security Fund, so as to facilitate access to loans by returnees.
Article 28
The Commission for Repatriation shall develop settlement sites. The sites shall be provided with basic socioeconomic infrastructures such as schools, Health Centres, water, access roads, etc.
The Housing scheme in these areas shall be modelled on the “village” grouped type of settlement to encourage the establishment of development centres in the rural area and break with the traditional scattered housing.
Article 29
The programme for the reintegration of returnees shall provide additional school facilities, by expanding existing schools or creating new infrastructures to accommodate the returnee children already at school or of school age.
Article 30
For purposes of ensuring a smooth integration into the educational system in the country, and avoiding that students interrupt their studies and suffer adverse effects, a number of measures shall be taken:
1. During the first year, education should be provided in the language used in the country of asylum.
2. Within the first three months, intensive French courses should be organised for teachers and students, especially for students in the senior level of primary school and for students in secondary schools and institutions of higher learning, from the anglophone countries.
3. Some of the aspects of adaptation may be catered for in the private educational system.
4. The Plan of Action for Rwandese refugees shall take in charge students in their last two years of the primary, secondary schools and institutions of higher learning who may wish to stay behind and complete their studies in the host countries, if the educational systems in which they were studying are not available in Rwanda. Their certificates shall be recognized in accordance with the UNESCO system of equivalence of diplomas, certificates, etc.
However, special attention shall be given to the writing and reading of Kinyarwanda through additional remedial lessons, to enable new pupils and any other who might experience similar difficulties to catch up with those who are more conversant with the language.
Sub-Section 6: Implementation of the Overall Programme of Repatriation
Article 31
In accordance with the mandate entrusted to them by the Dar es Salaam Summit of 19th February, 1991, the UNHCR and the OAU shall organize, within six (6) months after the establishment of the Broad-Based Transitional Government, a Donors’ Conference for the financing of projects earmarked in the Plan of Action for the Rwandese refugees.
In addition to other internal sources of funding, the Rwandese Government shall also rely on bilateral cooperation to support the Repatriation Programme.
Article 32
The implementation, at the political and administrative level, of the Repatriation Programme shall be supervised by the Secretariat of State for Rehabilitation and Social Integration.
For the technical implementation of the various components of the Repatriation Programme, the Government of Rwanda and the UNHCR shall preferably resort to those NGOs with an established reliability, taking also their respective specialization into account. As such, one or several NGOs shall undertake site development activities, building activities, and the distribution of food aid.
Sub-Section 7: Timetable for Repatriation
Article 33
All the returnees having the means to settle themselves without recourse to Government assistance may do so, soon after the signing of the Peace Agreement.
To that end, Rwandese Embassies shall issue travel documents to all Rwandese refugees who wish to go back to Rwanda.
Article 34
With respect to repatriation in groups, the following programme of sequence is envisaged:
1. Within six (6) months after the establishment of the Broad-Based Transitional Government, the UNHCR and the OAU shall organize a Donors Conference on the financing of the Repatriation Programme.
2. Within six (6) months after the establishment of the Broad-Based Transitional Government, tripartite agreements between Rwanda, the UNHCR and individual countries in the Region and the UNHCR shall have been concluded on issues pertaining to the repatriation of refugees.
3. Within Six (6) months after its establishment, the Broad-Based Transitional Government shall undertake operations for the preparation of settlement sites.
4. Within nine (9) months following the establishment of that Government, the repatriation of the first batch of returnees may begin.
Section 2: Other Repatriation Solution: Settlement in the Host Country
Article 35
The Broad-Based Transitional Government shall take and implement measures, including through bilateral agreements, for the protection of the Rwandese nationals who shall have opted to settle in the host countries as immigrants.
Those immigrants shall fully enjoy the same rights as all other Rwandese citizens.
Chapter II: Return of Persons Displaced by War and Social Strifes
Section 1: Preparatory Measures
Article 36
The organized return of persons displaced as a result of war and social strife shall be done after the following preparatory measures have been taken:
1. Deployment of the International Neutral Force.
2. Disengagement of Forces in the war zones.
3. Establishment of the Broad-Based Transitional Government.
4. Clearance of mines in the war zones.
5. Planning and provision of humanitarian assistance in essential services.
Section 2: Administration and Security in the War Zones
Article 37
The administration entities established before the outbreak of war shall be reconstituted.
Article 38
The socio-economic services established before the outbreak of war, especially in the educational, health, justice, youth, trade, agricultural and animal husbandry sectors at the level of administration entities in the war zones shall resume their activities.
Article 39
The Broad-Based Transitional Government shall determine mechanisms of appointing local authorities in these zones.
Article 40
The clearance of mines in the zones shall be conducted by the International Neutral Force, in collaboration with the Army Command High Council.
Article 41
Security shall be ensured by the local police to be provided with adequate means and assisted, where necessary, by the National Gendarmerie.
Section 3: Humanitarian Assistance
Article 42
Humanitarian Aid shall be distributed by the Secretariat of State for Rehabilitation and Social Integration, assisted by the Humanitarian Agencies.
Article 43
The humanitarian aid shall consist of:
1. Food aid;
2. Domestic items;
3. Farming tools;
4. Building materials;
5. Health care and Medicines;
6. Education (School equipment, uniforms, school fees for a period of two years);
7. Transport to their places of domicile for those who cannot afford it;
8. Labour costs for the construction of houses;
9. Seeds;
10. Establishment of temporary shelters.
Section 4: Timetable and Modalities for Return
Article 44
As soon as the preparatory measures spelled out in Article 36 of the present Protocol are put in place, the Broad-Based Transitional Government shall issue directives for the return of displaced persons.
Article 45
The return of war displaced persons to their homes shall, as much as possible, be coordinated with the return of the refugees who left the country during the war, as well as that of persons displaced as a result of social strife. 
Protocol of Agreement between the Government of the Republic of Rwanda and the Rwandese Patriotic Front on the Repatriation of Refugees and the Resettlement of Displaced Persons, signed at Arusha on 9 June 1993, Articles 3 and 8–45, as annexed to the Arusha Peace Agreement between the Government of the Republic of Rwanda and the Rwandese Patriotic Front, Arusha, 4 August 1993.
Afghan Peace Accord
Paragraph 6 of the 1993 Afghan Peace Accord provides: “Effective steps shall be taken to facilitate the return of displaced persons to their respective homes and locations.” 
Peace Accord between the Islamic State of Afghanistan, Harkat-e-Inqilab-e-Islami, Mahaz-e-Milli, Harkat-e-Islami, Hizbe-e-Islami, Jabha-e-Nijat-e-Milli, Ahmadzai Ittehad-e-Islami and Hizb-e-Wahdat-e-Islami, Islamabad, 7 March 1993, annexed to Letter dated 10 March 1993 from the permanent representative of Pakistan to the United Nations addressed to the Secretary-General, UN Doc. S/25398, 11 March 1993, § 6.
Sudan Peace Agreement
Paragraph 6(iii)(1) of Chapter 4 of the 1997 Sudan Peace Agreement created several administrative structures designed, inter alia, “to assist, repatriate, resettle and rehabilitate the displaced and the returnees”. 
Sudan Peace Agreement between the Government of Sudan; the South Sudan United Democratic Salvation Front (UDSF), comprised of the South Sudan Independence Movement (SSIM) and the Union of Sudan African Parties (USAP); the Sudan People’s Liberation Movement (SPLM), the Equatoria Defence Force (EDF); and the South Sudan Independents Group (SSIG), Khartoum, 21 April 1997, also known as the Khartoum Peace Agreement, Chapter 4, § 6(iii)(1).
Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement
Principle 28 of the 1998 Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement states:
1. Competent authorities have the primary duty and responsibility to establish conditions, as well as provide the means, which allow internally displaced persons to return voluntarily, in safety and with dignity, to their homes or places of habitual residence, or to resettle voluntarily in another part of the country. Such authorities shall endeavour to facilitate the reintegration of returned or resettled internally displaced persons.
2. Special efforts should be made to ensure the full participation of internally displaced persons in the planning and management of their return or resettlement and reintegration. 
Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement, presented to the UN Commission on Human Rights by the Special Representative of the UN Secretary-General on Internally Displaced Persons, UN Doc. E/CN.4/1998/53/Add.2, 11 February 1998, Principle 28.
Cairo Plan of Action
In paragraph 70 of the 2000 Cairo Plan of Action, African and EU heads of State and government, in order to address the problem of refugees and displaced persons, agreed “to continue to provide assistance to refugees and displaced persons and to participate in their reintegration in conformity with international law and relevant UN Conventions”. 
Cairo Plan of Action, adopted at the Africa-Europe Summit, held under the Aegis of the Organization of African Unity and the European Union, Cairo, 3–4 April 2000, § 70.
Ouagadougou Political Agreement between the Presidency of Côte d’Ivoire and the Forces Nouvelles of Côte d’Ivoire
The 2007 Ouagadougou Political Agreement between the Presidency of Côte d’Ivoire and the Forces Nouvelles of Côte d’Ivoire provides:
Preamble
At the invitation of His Excellency Mister Blaise Compaoré, President of Burkina Faso, in his capacity as incumbent Chairman of the Authority of Heads of State and Government of the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS), acting upon the latter’s express mandate, two delegations of the Republic of Côte d’Ivoire, one representing the President of the Republic and the other the Forces Nouvelles, met in Ouagadougou from 5 February to 3 March 2007 …
After identifying the problems encountered in the implementation of the Linas-Marcoussis, Accra and Pretoria Agreements, as well as of the UN resolutions on Côte d’Ivoire, the Parties, with a view to taking decisions, reaffirmed:
- their commitment to the Linas-Marcoussis, Accra and Pretoria Agreements;
- their commitment to all UN resolutions on Côte d’Ivoire, in particular to UN Security Council resolutions 1633 (2005) and 1721 (2006).
In order to facilitate the implementation of the Agreements and the resolutions addressed above, notably resolution 1721 (2006), the Parties have taken the following decisions:
VI. Measures aimed at consolidating national reconciliation, peace, security and free movement of persons and goods
6.5. On the programme to help the persons displaced by the war return
From the perspective of national reconciliation and political and institutional normalization, the Parties of the Direct Dialogue agree to put into place, as soon as possible, a programme to help the persons displaced by the war return. This programme aims to ensure the social reintegration of persons and families who have left their home or their property due to the war. 
Ouagadougou Political Agreement between the Presidency of Côte d’Ivoire and the Forces Nouvelles of Côte d’Ivoire, having met at Ouagadougou from 5 February to 3 March 2007, Ouagadougou, 4 March 2007, preamble and Section VI, § 6.5.
N’Djamena Protocol on the Establishment of Humanitarian Assistance
Article 10 of the 2004 N’Djamena Protocol on the Establishment of Humanitarian Assistance states:
The Parties will facilitate the return of the refugees and the displaced to their origin communities on a voluntary basis and under security and dignity conditions. They will put in place adequate protection measures and their property will be restored or their losses compensated. 
Protocol on the Establishment of Humanitarian Assistance in Darfur, signed by the Government of Sudan, the Sudan Liberation Movement/Army, the Sudanese Justice and Equality Movement, the African Union and the Chadian Mediation, N’Djamena, 8 April 2004, annexed to the N’Djamena Humanitarian Ceasefire Agreement, signed by the Government of Sudan, the Sudan Liberation Movement/Army, the Sudanese Justice and Equality Movement, the African Union and the Chadian Mediation, N’Djamena, 8 April 2004, Article 10.
Colombia
Colombia’s Basic Military Manual (1995) provides that at the end of the conflict, the parties have a duty to “facilitate the return of the displaced population and to provide them with protection and humanitarian assistance”. 
Colombia, Derecho Internacional Humanitario – Manual Básico para las Personerías y las Fuerzas Armadas de Colombia, Ministerio de Defensa Nacional, 1995, p. 31.
Peru
Peru’s IHL Manual (2004) states:
When the tactical situation permits, the armed forces must cooperate, as far as possible, to ensure that normal conditions are restored, so that the civilian population can return to normal after the conflict.
Commanders and their subordinates must contribute to restoring normal conditions for the civilian population by:
a. rehabilitating combat zones (removal of obstacles and dangerous objects, such as mines);
b. ensuring the return of people and objects to their usual places and reintegration;
c. repairing damage according to established priorities;
d. returning objects used or taken by the armed forces for combat purposes (as a result of mobilization) to their owners;
e. providing relief to civilians in need and the population in general;
f. providing means of transport;
g. restoring essential public services as a means of preventing epidemics and the spread of infectious and contagious diseases. 
Peru, Manual de Derecho Internacional Humanitario para las Fuerzas Armadas, Resolución Ministerial Nº 1394-2004-DE/CCFFAA/CDIH-FFAA, Lima, 1 December 2004, § 66.
Peru
Peru’s IHL and Human Rights Manual (2010) states:
When the tactical situation permits, the armed forces must cooperate, as far as possible, to ensure that normal conditions are restored, so that the civilian population can return to normal after the conflict.
Commanders and their subordinates must contribute to restoring normal conditions for the civilian population by:
a. rehabilitating combat zones (removal of obstacles and dangerous objects, such as mines);
b. ensuring the return of people and objects to their usual place and their reintegration;
c. repairing damage according to established priorities;
d. returning objects used or taken by the armed forces for combat purposes (as a result of mobilization) to their owners;
e. providing relief to civilians in need and the population in general;
f. providing means of transport;
g. restoring essential public services as a means of preventing epidemics and the spread of infectious and contagious diseases. 
Peru, Manual de Derecho Internacional Humanitario y Derechos Humanos para las Fuerzas Armadas, Resolución Ministerial No. 049-2010/DE/VPD, Lima, 21 May 2010, § 67, p. 268.
In post-conflict situations, the AFP [Armed Forces of the Philippines] shall be an active partner in the sustainable reintegration of IDPs [internally displaced persons] at their place of origin or where they would choose to resettle and continue on with productive lives. 
Philippines, Internal Peace and Security Plan “Bayanihan, General Headquarters, Armed Forces of the Philippines, Quezon City, The Philippines, 2010, p. 29.
Angola
Angola’s Rules on the Resettlement of Internally Displaced Populations (2001) provides:
It is the responsibility of the Provincial Governments, through the Sub-Groups on Displaced Persons and Refugees of the Provincial Humanitarian Coordination Groups, to carry out the following:
a) To plan, organize and ensure the implementation of all resettlement and return processes for displaced persons;
b) To receive new internally displaced persons and returnees and direct them to the reception centres;
d) To identify resettlement and return sites;
e) To monitor the overall resettlement and return process, ensuring the implementation of the norms on the resettlement of internally displaced populations;
g) To guarantee adequate transportation to assist populations returning to their points of origin. 
Angola, Rules on the Resettlement of Internally Displaced Populations (2001), Article 2(a), (b), (d), (e) and (g); see also Article 3 (identification of land), Article 4 (security of site), Article 6 (state administration), Article 7 (rehabilitation of infrastructure), Article 8 (social assistance), Article 9 (water and sanitation), Article 10 (resettlement kits) and Article 11 (food).
Armenia
Armenia’s Law on Refugees and Asylum (2008) states: “All competent bodies of the Republic of Armenia dealing with asylum and refugee issues must … facilitate the voluntary return of a refugee or asylum seeker”. 
Armenia, Law on Refugees and Asylum, 2008, Article 4(3).
The Law defines a refugee as:
a foreign national who is compelled to leave the country of his/her nationality, or, in case of a stateless person, the country of his/her former habitual residence due to generalized violence, foreign aggression, internal conflicts, massive violations of human rights, or other serious events disrupting public order. 
Armenia, Law on Refugees and Asylum, 2008, Article 6(1)(2).
Colombia
Under Colombia’s Law on Internally Displaced Persons (1997), a National System of Integral Care for the Displaced Population on Account of Violence was created in order to facilitate the integration of displaced persons in Colombian society. A National Plan was also established in order to, inter alia, adopt means to facilitate the voluntary return of displaced persons. 
Colombia, Law on Internally Displaced Persons, 1997, Articles 2(6) and 10(6).
Ethiopia
Ethiopia’s Transitional Period Charter (1991) provided that priority should be given to the rehabilitation of those sections of the population that had been forcibly uprooted. 
Ethiopia, Transitional Period Charter, 1991, Article 14.
Georgia
Georgia’s Law on Displaced Persons (1996), as amended to 2010, states:
Article 5. Rights of IDPs …
2. The Ministry of Internally Displaced Persons from Occupied Territories of Georgia [shall] support IDPs in [the] enjoyment of their rights at temporary dwelling spaces, together with the executive authorities and local self-government bodies, who:
k) Assist IDPs to return to their place of permanent residence after the reasons … [for displacement] have ceased.
Article 7. … Rehabilitation of displaced persons at the places of their permanent residence
1. In case IDPs return to their places of permanent residence after the reasons … [for displacement] have ceased:
a) the relevant bodies of executive authorities and local self-government, including the Ministry of Displaced Persons from Occupied Territories, Refugees and Accommodation of Georgia, shall secure the exercise of their constitutional rights [and] create the necessary socio-economic living conditions for the safety at their places of permanent residence. 
Georgia, Law on Displaced Persons, 1996, as amended to 2010, Articles 5(2)(k) and 7(1)(a).
The Law defines an IDP as:
a citizen of Georgia or a stateless person permanently residing in Georgia, who was forced to leave his place of permanent residency and seek asylum within the territory of Georgia due to a threat to his or his relatives’ life, health and freedom, as a result of an aggression by a foreign state, an internal conflict or massive violations of human rights. 
Georgia, Law on Displaced Persons, 1996, as amended to 2010, Article 1.
Georgia
Georgia’s Law on Displaced Persons (1996), as amended in 2011, states:
Article 1 – The Term IDP [internally displaced person] and the Prohibition of Discrimination
1. Internally displaced person from the occupied territory– IDP is a citizen of Georgia or stateless person permanently residing in Georgia, who was forced to leave his place of permanent residency and seek asylum within the territory of Georgia due to the threat to his life, health and freedom or life, health and freedom of his family members, as a result of aggression of a foreign state, internal conflict o[r] mass violation of human rights or [a]s a result of events determined by … paragraph 11 of article 2 of this Law.
Article 5.4 –Ensuring the [rights of] IDP[s] in the Temporary Residence
1. The Ministry supports the IDPs in [the] enjoyment of their rights in … temporary dwelling spaces together with the executive authorities and local self-government bodies, who:
g) Assist the IDP to return to his/her place of permanent residence after the elimination of the reasons stated in the first paragraph of the first Article of the present Law;
Article 7 – State guarantees for rehabilitation of displaced persons at [their] places of permanent residence
… If [an] IDP after elimination of the reasons enumerated in article 1 of this law returns to his place of permanent residence:
a) [T]he relevant bodies of executive authorities and local self-government, including the Ministry of Refugees and Accommodation shall secure the exercise of [IDPs’] constitutional rights [and] shall create [the] necessary social-economic living conditions for … safety at their places of permanent residence[.] 
Georgia, Law on Displaced Persons, 1996, as amended in 2011, Articles 1(1), 5.4(1)(g) and 7(a).
Georgia
Georgia’s Law on Internally Displaced Persons (2014) states:
Article 5. Protection of the Population from Displacement
2. The Government shall:
c) minimize inevitable displacement and damages caused by it;
Article 6. Definition of an IDP [internationally displaced person]
1. A citizen of Georgia or a stateless person with a status residing in Georgia shall be considered as an IDP, if he/she was forced to leave his/her permanent place of residence because of threat to his/her or his/her family member[s’] life, health or freedom caused by the occupation of the territory by a foreign state, aggression, armed conflict, mass violence and/or massive human rights violations and/or he/she cannot return to his/her permanent place of residence due to the above mentioned reasons.
Article 16. Social Protection of an IDP
1. The Ministry [of Internally Displaced Persons from Occupied Territories, Accommodation and Refugees of Georgia], within its mandate, together with other state bodies[,] shall support an IDP to exercise his/her rights. In particular, they shall
g) help IDPs to return to their places of permanent residence after elimination of circumstances as referred to in paragraph 1 of Article 6;
Article 18. State Guarantees for Reintegration after IDPs’ Return to Their Places of Permanent Residence
1. The state shall ensure [the] development of relevant mechanisms supporting [the] reintegration of IDPs [at] places of permanent residence when they return.
2. If IDPs, after [the] elimination of circumstances as referred to in paragraph 1 of Article 6, return to their places of permanent residence, the Ministry and other state bodies within the competencies granted to them shall:
a) ensure [the] realization of IDP rights envisaged by this law and the Constitution of Georgia;
b) take measures to create [the] necessary socio-economic and legal conditions for … safe living at their places of permanent residence;
4. The Ministry, together with other relevant state bodies[,] shall co-ordinate return, resettlement and reintegration activities while guaranteeing [a] safe and dignified return.
5. The state takes all measures to ensure [the] participation of IDPs in planning and managing [the] process of return, resettlement and reintegration to the places of permanent residence. 
Georgia, Law on Internally Displaced Persons, 2014, Articles 5(2)(c), 6(1), 16(1)(g), 18(1)–(2)(b), and 18(4)–(5).
Peru
Peru’s Law on Internal Displacement (2004) states that the authorities responsible for the voluntary return or resettlement of internally displaced persons “shall endeavour to facilitate the reintegration of returned or resettled internally displaced persons”. 
Peru, Law on Internal Displacement, 2004, Article 14(1).
The Law also states: “To the extent possible, the full participation of internally displaced persons in the planning and management of their return or resettlement and reintegration must be ensured.” 
Peru, Law on Internal Displacement, 2004, Article 14(2).
Peru
Peru’s Regulations to the Law on Internal Displacement (2005) states with regard to the process of returning or resettling internally displaced persons:
The intermediate stage … refers to the transfer phase in which the following activities are carried out:
1. Make sure the necessary logistics are in place for the transport [of internally displaced persons] in conditions of emotional and physical safety and with the support of a specialized technical team, the Armed Forces and the Police; and
2. Transfer … food, clothing and first aid kits. 
Peru, Regulations to the Law on Internal Displacement, 2005, Article 32(1)–(2).
The Regulations also states concerning the process of returning or resettling internally displaced persons:
The resolution stage (after the displacement) refers to the execution of activities aimed at consolidating the reintegration of the internally displaced persons through:
1. Basic initial services in order to support the transition phase as long as farming does not generate immediate income. … [This] includes the provision of food, medicine for … a first aid kit, blankets, farming material to kick-start production, material for manual and semi-industrial work, shelter programmes and assistance in the resolution of after-effects.
2. Promotion of local economic activity through the identification and strengthening of the capacities for social and communal organization and production as well as the execution of social and agricultural infrastructure programmes and projects in order to reactivate the community’s productive economic basis and for the reconstruction of a social fabric;
3. Significant importance must be given at this stage to actions taken for the definition of priorities with the participation of both the resident and the returning displaced population, thus creating a Care Programme for the area.
4. The area’s Care Programme shall consider providing, among others, assistance in the fields of mental health, access to land, housing and development programmes in order to ensure a sustainable reintegration; and,
5. The implementation of a monitoring and evaluation system. 
Peru, Regulations to the Law on Internal Displacement, 2005, Article 33(1)–(5).
No data.
Afghanistan
In 1997, in identical letters to the UN Secretary-General and to the President of the UN Security Council, Afghanistan called upon the UN “to immediately intervene to prepare the circumstances allowing all civilians who have been deported and forcibly displaced to return to their homes”. 
Afghanistan, Identical letters dated 19 January 1997 to the UN Secretary-General and the President of the UN Security Council, UN Doc. S/1997/54, 21 January 1997, Annex, pp. 2–3.
Afghanistan
In 2009, in its initial report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, Afghanistan stated:
261. Between 2002 and 2008, UNHCR, in cooperation with the MoRR [Ministry of Refugees and Repatriations], has facilitated the voluntary return and reintegration of 4,291,302 refugees (2,247,891 males (53 per cent) males and 2,026,733 (47 per cent) females) mainly from Pakistan and Iran. Twenty-eight per cent are children under the age of 18 years … Another 1,302,136 Afghans have returned spontaneously with 977,647 forcibly returned from Pakistan and Iran. From 2002 to November 2008, UNHCR and its partners have identified 4,880 unaccompanied returnee and forcibly returned children who have been reintegrated with their families. Unaccompanied refugee children approaching UNHCR offices in countries hosting Afghans seeking voluntary repatriation are assisted to return safely only after their families are traced inside Afghanistan.
262. Refugee children returning to the country have the same rights and benefits as other Afghan children. The services may include housing assistance to returnees’ families in their original place of residence, humanitarian assistance to vulnerable families, job opportunities, accommodation, legal support, and education for school age children.
267. In 2002, a MOU [Memorandum of Understanding] was signed between the GoA [Government of Afghanistan], UNAMA [United Nations Assistance Mission in Afghanistan], and UNHCR giving UNHCR a lead support role in relation to IDPs [internally displaced persons]. In 2005, a National Policy was formed with emphasis on durable solutions and affirming the lead role of the Afghan Government represented by the MoRR [Ministry of Refugees and Repatriations], with the support of UNHCR. The policy aims at assisting IDPs … and in finding durable solutions for IDPs through voluntary return and/or local integration.
268. … The displacement is mainly due to “conflict, ethnic tensions or human rights violations, and natural disasters such as drought, or secondary displacement”.
269. In 2002, during the fall of the Taliban regime, 1.2 million people were displaced. The majority of them returned spontaneously while 500,000 IDPs returned with the assistance of UNHCR. In 2006 alone, UNAMA reported that around 80–90,000 people fled due to fighting in the Helmand, Kandahar and Uruzgan provinces in southern Afghanistan. Some 99,035 families (490,459 individuals) were assisted between 2002 and July 2008 based on the MOU signed by GoA, UNAMA and UNHCR.
270. There are several reports about returning refugees being displaced again on their return because of the lack of economic opportunities, unresolved land and property disputes, lack of shelter and/or basic services such as healthcare and education in their respective places of origin. This situation is of particular concern in eastern Afghanistan. 
Afghanistan, Initial report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, 13 June 2010, UN Doc. CRC/C/AFG/1, submitted 28 August 2009, §§ 261–262 and 267–270.
[footnotes in original omitted]
Angola
In 1996, during a debate in the UN Commission on Human Rights in relation to Cyprus, Angola stated that “all restrictions preventing displaced persons and refugees from returning home should be lifted”. 
Angola, Statement before the UN Commission on Human Rights, UN Doc. E/CN.4/ 1996/SR.46, 22 May 1996, p. 3.
Australia
In 2009, in a ministerial statement on Sri Lanka before the House of Representatives, Australia’s Minister for Foreign Affairs stated:
Sri Lanka faces the tremendous task of resettling hundreds of thousands of displaced citizens. This process has started, but since the fighting stopped four months ago at least 250,000 people remain in camps for internally displaced people. Civilians in northern Sri Lanka have lived under difficult conditions for many years and suffered greatly, especially in the last months of the conflict. It is now vital to move quickly, more quickly than has been the case to this point, to create the conditions for them to rebuild their lives.
This financial year, 2009–10, Australia will provide more than $35 million in development assistance to Sri Lanka. Supporting resettlement is a major focus for the coming months. Yesterday I said publicly that recently I had approved $2 million to support the resettlement of displaced people in Sri Lanka. … This funding will include assistance for continuing the process of documenting internally displaced people to facilitate their return, their assistance with essential items, including food and water for travel and reintegration, and assistance to families hosting displaced people.
Australia welcomes the Sri Lankan government’s commitment to resettling over 80 per cent of civilians from camps for internally displaced people by the end of 2009, and looks forward to the resettlement of all civilians as soon as possible. Freedom of movement for the civilians in the north is essential. The start of the monsoon season this month has increased the urgency for voluntary resettlement and other solutions that provide freedom of movement. Australia’s call applies especially to children, the sick and the elderly, but it extends to all those citizens of Sri Lanka currently in the camps for internally displaced people.
[A] prerequisite for the revival of northern Sri Lanka is the de-mining of former conflict areas. It is the case that the demining challenge will affect the resettlement of displaced people from the camps. That is why in June, Australia provided over $1 million to non-government organisations for de-mining and why we responded in August to a further request by the government of Sri Lanka by providing a further $1 million through the International Organisation for Migration for de-mining efforts.
The voluntary resettlement process requires full access by international humanitarian agencies to areas of return and to information to ensure effective coordination. Australia has consistently called upon the Sri Lankan government to ensure that such access is afforded and information provided. 
Australia, House of Representatives, Minister for Foreign Affairs, Ministerial statement: Sri Lanka, Hansard, 14 September 2009, pp. 9413–9414.
Australia
In 2009, in a response to a question without notice on Sri Lanka in the House of Representatives, Australia’s Minister for Foreign Affairs stated:
I announced when I was there a further contribution by Australia of $11 million: $6 million to assist in de-mining to ensure that the areas where people are resettled to are free from the terrible blight of landmines; also $3 million to help through the United Nations with housing to resettle these people from displaced camps into accommodation; and, thirdly, $2 million worth of food through the World Food Program.
I very much made the point to the President and his ministers that, in ensuring this resettlement occurs, freedom of movement so far as those displaced people are concerned is absolutely essential. 
Australia, House of Representatives, Minister for Foreign Affairs, Question Without Notice: Sri Lanka, Hansard, 16 November 2009, p. 11673.
Australia
In 2009, in a response to a question without notice on asylum seekers in the House of Representatives, Australia’s Minister for Foreign Affairs stated:
[We] confirm our continued cooperation with the Sri Lankans to assist with their humanitarian and resettlement challenges, including providing … $5 million to support the resettlement of internally displaced persons and $2.3 million for demining the former conflict areas. This is particularly important given the heavy use of landmines in the area, which is of concern in the resettlement process, and given the number of landmines used in the civil war against the LTTE [Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam]. 
Australia, House of Representatives, Minister for Foreign Affairs, Question Without Notice: Asylum Seekers, Hansard, 25 November 2009, p. 12838.
Australia
In 2010, in a ministerial statement on Sri Lanka before the House of Representatives, Australia’s Minister for Foreign Affairs stated:
… Australia continues to advocate resettlement of all remaining displaced persons in safe and dignified conditions as soon as possible. …
In many cases resettlement areas have been badly affected by the conflict. There are impassable roads, destroyed houses and a lack of potable water. Infrastructure, including schools and health facilities, is damaged or non-existent. Large swathes of agricultural land are as yet unusable and tools to restart livelihoods are scarce. In addition, there is the ever-present danger of landmines and unexploded ordnance. Demining is an essential first step to allow people to return home and rebuild their lives. For this reason, Australia has already announced its commitment to provide up to $20 million for demining over the next five years to ensure that the northern part of Sri Lanka can be made safe for resettlement. 
Australia, House of Representatives, Minister for Foreign Affairs, Ministerial statement: Sri Lanka, Hansard, 17 March 2010, p. 2806.
Belgium
In 2007, during a debate in the UN Security Council on the situation in Somalia, the representative of Belgium stated: “All parties … are duty-bound to … promote the return of displaced persons to their areas of origin.” 
Belgium, Statement by the permanent representative of Belgium before the UN Security Council on “The situation in Somalia”, 17 December 2007, p. 10.
Bosnia and Herzegovina
In 2005, in its initial report to the Human Rights Committee, Bosnia and Herzegovina referred to the work of the Commission for Refugees and Displaced Persons in regard to the return of displaced persons. It stated: “Mine disposal is [an] important precondition for return, especially if it is known that the return to villages and places where agriculture and cattle breeding are basic for providing the returnees’ subsistence.” 
Bosnia and Herzegovina, Initial report to the Human Rights Committee, 24 November 2005, UN Doc. CCPR/C/BIH/1, § 150; see also § 151.
Burundi
In 2008, in its second periodic report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, Burundi stated:
41. Protocol IV [to the 2000 Arusha Peace and Reconciliation Agreement for Burundi], chapter I, article 3, on activities in preparation for return, resettlement and reintegration, stipulates that the Government must undertake preparatory measures by requesting international organizations and the host countries concerned to conduct a gender and age disaggregated census of the refugees, including the old caseload refugees (1972), and a multidimensional census of the disaster victims.
42. Pursuant to chapter I, article 4, on guidelines governing resettlement and integration, the National Commission for the Rehabilitation of Disaster Victims must strive to achieve the following aims and objectives:
- To grant all returning families, including female- and child-headed families, food aid, material support and assistance with health, education, agriculture and reconstruction until they become self-sufficient
- To provide communes, villages and collines (hills) with assistance in the reconstruction of community infrastructures and with support for income-generating activities, paying special attention to women and enhancing their roles in building and sustaining families and communities
- To offer intensive language courses for returnees to mitigate the language problems
- To help returnees in other areas such as medical services, psychosocial support, social security and retirement, education of children and the equivalency of diplomas awarded outside Burundi.
65. As to social questions, the Government has signed a joint programme with the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) and the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR) on the reception and resettlement of repatriated persons in dignity and with respect for human rights, in particular the human rights of the most vulnerable groups, such as women and children who are heads of families. The programme aims to provide human rights training to staff working with repatriated persons at the borders and in the host communities.
285. In addressing this situation, the main objective of the Ministry of Reintegration and Resettlement of Displaced and Repatriated Persons is to rehabilitate Burundians who have been victims of the war (domestically displaced, repatriated and dispersed persons). This takes place in the form of humanitarian aid, resettlement and reintegration, in which the focus must be on reconciliation and peaceful coexistence, income-generating activities and access to basic social services. A large part of this effort is devoted to helping children, who, like women and the elderly, are particularly vulnerable.
286. The Ministry conducts activities in three areas:
- Medical assistance
- Food supplies and other basic necessities
- School assistance
287. UNHCR has built homes and primary schools in areas with large numbers of repatriated persons. 
Burundi, Second periodic report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, 7 January 2010, UN Doc. CRC/C/BDI/2, submitted 17 July 2008, §§ 41–42, 65 and 285–287.
Chad
In 2012, in its second periodic report to the Human Rights Committee, Chad stated:
76. From 2005 to 2007, a succession of crises at the regional level (in particular the Darfur conflict) and at the national level (insecurity and intercommunity and political tension) caused the internal displacement of some 180,000 persons in the eastern part of Chad, especially in the regions of Ouaddai and Sila. …
77. Displaced persons currently choose between integration, relocation or return to their village of origin. At this stage, the Government has taken significant steps to enable displaced persons to return by building shelters, health centres, schools, wells, etc.
78. Between 2007 and 2008, intercommunity fighting led to the forced displacement of some 16,000 Chadians within the country, in particular in the regions of Dar Sila and Ouaddai. ...
80. To date, the Government has set up:
– Two governmental institutions with a mandate for internally displaced persons: the national agency to coordinate support for humanitarian activities and the integrated security force … (CONSAHDIS) and the national commission for the reintegration of refugees and returnees (CNARR). CONSAHDIS supervises the integrated security force (DIS) and projects to assist displaced persons, returnees and/or relocated persons and host populations and manages displaced persons sites.
– A comprehensive stimulus programme for eastern Chad (PGRET), developed with the support of a number of partners, particularly UNDP, was officially approved in September 2010. This programme seeks to meet the needs of internally displaced persons and host communities in areas of return, with the help of substantial financial and human resources made available by the Government.
– PGRET is a strong and positive political signal from the Government, demonstrating its resolve to improve the living conditions of its citizens, enable returnees to put down roots and start a process that will enable them to enjoy their fundamental rights. 
Chad, Second periodic report to the Human Rights Committee, 28 January 2013, UN Doc. CCPR/C/TCD/2, submitted 20 July 2012, §§ 76–78 and 80.
Colombia
In 2004, in its third periodic report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, Colombia stated:
117. The [Government’s] Programme of Comprehensive Care for the Displaced Population and the Social Solidarity Network are trying to find ways to improve living conditions for displaced people by providing comprehensive assistance that will enable families to become productive again and to recover their emotional stability, either by returning to their place of origin or by relocating elsewhere in the country.
118. Under … the resettlement arrangements, 9,285 households and 1,813 individuals benefited from expenditure of 13,099 million pesos on income-generating projects, training for entry into the job market and housing projects in towns and in the countryside. 
Colombia, Third periodic report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, 24 August 2005, UN Doc. CRC/C/Add.129, submitted 28 June 2004, §§ 117–118.
Côte d’Ivoire
In 2009, in its report to the UN Human Rights Council, Côte d’Ivoire stated: “[T]he political and military crises faced by Côte d’Ivoire since 1999, exacerbated by the war which broke out in September 2002, have had many grave consequences in the political, economic and social spheres.” 
Côte d’Ivoire, Report to the UN Human Rights Council, 3 September 2009, UN Doc. A/HRC/WG.6/6/CIV/1, § 136.
Côte d’Ivoire also stated:
133. The successive political and military crises … have resulted in massive and repeated waves of population displacement. According to the available estimates, the number of those affected is between 750,000 and 1 million.
135. … [T]he State, working in conjunction with a number of partners has initiated and put in place incentives and programmes of assistance to enable displaced people to return to their regions of origin. 
Côte d’Ivoire, Report to the UN Human Rights Council, 3 September 2009, UN Doc. A/HRC/WG.6/6/CIV/1, §§ 133 and 135.
Côte d’Ivoire
In 2010, in its combined initial to third periodic reports to the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women, Côte d’Ivoire stated: “The military and political crisis has displaced large numbers of people from the Centre North-West region to the government-controlled area.” 
Côte d’Ivoire, Combined initial to third periodic reports to the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women, 18 October 2010, UN Doc. CEDAW/C/CIV/1-3, submitted 7 September 2010, § 547.
Côte d’Ivoire also stated: “There are several resettlement programmes for … war victims”. 
Côte d’Ivoire, Combined initial to third periodic reports to the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women, 18 October 2010, UN Doc. CEDAW/C/CIV/1-3, submitted 7 September 2010, § 271.
Côte d’Ivoire
In 2013, in its initial report to the Human Rights Committee, Côte d’Ivoire stated:
211. The National Commission of Inquiry created by Decree No. 2011-176 of 20 July 2011 to investigate violations of human rights and public freedoms in the aftermath of the presidential election held on 31 October and 28 November 2010 was given the task of conducting non-judicial investigations into breaches of human rights and international humanitarian law in the period from 31 October 2010 to 15 May 2011.
225. The security situation worsened further with the post-election crisis of December 2010, with armed conflict leading to widespread devastation and the destruction of police and gendarmerie stations and military camps. 
Côte d’Ivoire, Initial report to the Human Rights Committee, 21 May 2013, UN Doc. CCPR/C/CIV/1, submitted 19 March 2013, §§ 211 and 225.
Côte d’Ivoire further stated:
The situation of displaced persons in Côte d’Ivoire
405. The violence that followed the presidential election in Côte d’Ivoire in November 2010 displaced hundreds of thousands of people. By the time the crisis reached its height, in 2011, about 200,000 men, women and children had sought asylum in 13 neighbouring countries, with Liberia, Ghana and Togo taking in the largest numbers. In addition, about a million people are estimated to have been displaced within Côte d’Ivoire. The situation improved considerably after April 2011, when the new President took office and a new Government was formed.
406. To help refugees return to Côte d’Ivoire, in August 2011 the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees concluded a tripartite agreement with the Governments of Côte d’Ivoire and Liberia, thus creating the legal framework and procedures for the repatriation of Ivorian refugees in Liberia who freely consented to this. A similar agreement was concluded with the Ghanaian authorities in October 2011.
407. Within Côte d’Ivoire itself, most internally displaced persons were able to return to their homes and attempt to rebuild their lives. However, tens of thousands have yet to find lasting solutions to their displacement.
408. Lack of security, humanitarian needs and access to land are the main obstacles to the return of displaced persons in the west of the country, where ongoing land disputes are perpetuating displacement and feeding ethnic tensions. Other major difficulties stand in the way of internally displaced persons’ desire to resume a normal life: food insecurity, limited access to health, education and housing services and gender-based sexual violence.
409. Another factor is the inadequacy of the financial resources available to implement the different projects and programmes devised for the rehabilitation and/or reintegration of internally displaced persons.
Responses to internal population displacement
410. In October 2011, the Ministry of Employment, Social Affairs and Solidarity, which is responsible for coordination with humanitarian organizations, set up a National Humanitarian Action Coordination Committee bringing together a number of ministries, NGOs and United Nations agencies. In this cooperative framework, humanitarian actors developed a strategy to enable internally displaced persons to return on a voluntary, sustainable basis, and this was validated by the Government in November 2011.
411. The restoration of State authority and security throughout the country, together with the restoration of basic social services and the promotion of income-generating activities, constitute responses to the return and reintegration difficulties of internally displaced persons.
412. In addition, government programmes were put in place for displaced persons. Under the President’s Emergency Plan, about 380 water pumps in villages taking in returning displaced persons were repaired during the first half of 2012. The Government provided this distressed population with financial and material assistance. It even contributed to the rebuilding of 1,000 dwellings with technical support from a humanitarian agency, Care.
413. Following the incidents triggered by the closure of the Nahibly camp, populations have benefited from government food and non-food donations and from financial support totalling CFAF 70 million.
414. The Government has made a substantial effort on behalf of internally displaced persons in the Lagunes region by providing a fund of CFAF 50 million to initiate a huge return operation, acting once again in collaboration with humanitarian agencies.
415. The Government is also benefiting from various programmes put in place by the international community to assist with reintegration into communities in certain parts of the country, especially the west.
416. These combined actions have produced tangible results. Whereas in May 2011 there were an estimated 80,000 internally displaced persons on 118 sites, there are now no displaced persons on these sites. 
Côte d’Ivoire, Initial report to the Human Rights Committee, 21 May 2013, UN Doc. CCPR/C/CIV/1, submitted 19 March 2013, §§ 405–416.
Democratic Republic of the Congo
In the framework of the 2008 DRC Pledge of Commitment signed by a number of armed groups, the Government of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), taking note of the pledge of the contracting parties and upon their request, undertook in conformity with the pertinent recommendations of the Conference on Peace, Stability and Development in the Provinces of North Kivu and South Kivu to “create a demilitarized zone to … secure the return of displaced persons”. 
Acte d’engagement signé par le CNDP-Mouvement Politico-Militaire, la PARECO/FAP, les Mai-Mai Kasindien, les Mai-Mai Kifuafua, les Mai-Mai Vurondo, les Mai-Mai Mongol, l’UJPS, les Mai-Mai Rwenzori et le Simba avec l’engagement solennel des Représentants de la Communauté Internationale, facilitateurs du présent acte d’engagement – les Nations-Unies, la Conférence Internationale sur la Région des Grands Lacs, les Etats-Unis d’Amérique, l’Union Africaine, l’Union Européenne et le Gouvernement (Pledge of Commitment signed by the CNDP-Mouvement Politico-Militaire, PARECO/FAP, Mai-Mai Kasindien, Mai-Mai Kifuafua, Mai-Mai Vurondo, Mai-Mai Mongol, UJPS, Mai-Mai Rwenzori and Simba with the solemn commitment of the representatives of the international community, facilitators of this pledge of commitment – the United Nations, the International Conference on the Great Lakes Region, the United States of America, the European Union and the Government), Goma, 23 January 2008, Article IV, § 4.
Democratic Republic of the Congo
In 2010, during a speech before the Parliament on the State of the Nation, the President of the Republic stated:
Even if still fragile in certain areas, peace is back in practically all the national territory.
The challenge before us now is to consolidate peace and stabilize the region. The response requires the following complementary actions:
- the progressive and organized return of displaced persons to their environments, as well as of refugees to their respective countries. 
Democratic Republic of the Congo, Speech by the President of the Republic before the Parliament on the State of the Nation, 8 December 2010, pp. 1–2.
Djibouti
In 1994, Djibouti concluded the Agreement on Peace and National Reconciliation with the Front for the Restoration of Unity and Democracy (Front pour la Restauration de l’Unité et de la Démocratie – FRUD), which provides:
The FRUD shall encourage the return of refugees and displaced persons from abroad.
They (FRUD) shall provide the government with a list of the individuals concerned, so that the State can provide them with aid and assistance. 
Djibouti, Agreement on Peace and National Reconciliation concluded between the government of Djibouti and the Front for the Restoration of Unity and Democracy (Front pour la Restauration de l’Unité et de la Démocratie – FRUD), 26 December 1994, Title III.
El Salvador
In 2008, in its third and fourth periodic reports to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, El Salvador stated in the section on special protection measures for returning children:
Reception mechanisms are established for Salvadoran children found travelling alone in other countries. These are mediated by the various institutions involved, namely the Department of Humanitarian Management and Migrant Care (DGHAM), the Ministry of External Relations, the National Civil Police General Directorate for Migration and Aliens (DGME) and the Salvadoran Institute for Full Development of Children and Adolescents (ISNA), amongst others. 
El Salvador, Third and fourth reports to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, 23 July 2009, UN Doc. CRC/C/SLV/3-4, submitted 21 February 2008, § 279.
In the same section, the report further stated:
The type of assistance offered [to returning children] consisted of providing:
a) Accommodation;
b) Food;
c) Hygiene products;
d) Psychological assistance, when necessary.  
El Salvador, Third and fourth reports to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, 23 July 2009, UN Doc. CRC/C/SLV/3-4, submitted 21 February 2008, § 284.
El Salvador
In 2009, in its written replies to the Committee on the Rights of the Child concerning its third and fourth periodic reports, El Salvador stated with regard to the “Welcome Home” programme for returning children:
A Migrant Care Centre was set up at the La Hachadura border in July 2005 in order to furnish social and humanitarian assistance and human rights protection to vulnerable Salvadorans returning to the country. The Centre provides children and adolescents with temporary accommodation pending their transfer to ISNA [National Institute for the Comprehensive Development of Children and Adolescents] staff, as well as food, upkeep and health care. 
El Salvador, Written replies by the Government of El Salvador to the list of issues prepared by the Committee on the Rights of the Child in connection with the consideration of the third and fourth periodic reports of El Salvador, UN Doc. CRC/C/SLV/Q/3–4/Add.1, submitted 10 December 2009, Question 8, § 26(d).
Georgia
In 2012, in its fourth periodic report to the Human Rights Committee, Georgia stated:
30. Before August 2008, Georgia already had up to 300,000 internally displaced persons [(IDPs)] from previous conflicts that occurred in [the] 1990s in Abkhazia, Georgia and Tskhinvali region/South Ossetia, Georgia. The Russia-Georgia War of 2008 resulted in a new flow of IDPs (more than 121 000 persons). Therefore, protection and promotion of human rights of IDPs remain … a priority for the Government of Georgia. [The] Government has developed an ambitious National Strategy on IDPs which refers to both – internally displaced people in [the] 1990s as well as in 2008; it aims at securing dignified living conditions for IDPs, their re-integration into Georgian society, and the creation of conditions that would allow for their voluntary and safe return to their permanent residences. The appropriate Action Plan for the implementation of the aforementioned Strategy on IDPs is also in place.
31. According to the National Strategy, the MIDPAR [Ministry of Internally Displaced Persons from Occupied Territories, Accommodation and Refugees] was assigned the leading role in coordinating and monitoring … the implementation of the Strategy and the Action Plan. The implementation of the Strategy on IDPs [i]s being undertaken in three stages during which all IDPs in need receive a DHS [Durable Housing Solutions] in an environment that provides opportunities for sustainable socio-economic integration. …
32. Within the framework of the State Strategy on IDPs and its Action Plan, the Government of Georgia has assisted significant number[s] of IDPs in their housing needs. As of December 2011, 279 [b]uildings in Tbilisi and 375 [b]uildings in [the] regions, in total 654 [b]uildings, were rehabilitated and transferred into the ownership of 18,909 IDP families. Also, cottages were constructed for 4,872 families, idle buildings were rehabilitated and transferred into ownership of 4,696 families, cash assistance was issued for 5,517 families, new apartment blocks were constructed for 2,029 families and rural houses were purchased for 80 families. In total, 36[,]103 IDP families, both from old and new conflicts, were provided with [a] durable housing solution.
33. The Government pays IDP allowances [and] covers electricity and other communal bills. The Second and Third stages of the process are still ongoing and it will cover all remaining IDPs.
34. As for the privatization process of the Collective Centers [(CCs)], it started in 2009. IDPs living in CCs owned by the Government that can provide conditions for DHS are offered to privatize their living spaces with [a] symbolic price paid by the Government. The process is voluntary and IDPs can refuse privatization and continue to live there until [an] alternative solution is offered to them i.e. alternative accommodation. …
35. There were cases when IDPs were asked to leave buildings which did not represent CCs (IDPs illegally occupied the building) or … where IDPs have already received DHS and therefore … were ineligible to continue occupying spaces in those particular buildings. To make the process more transparent, MIDPAR with the support of the UNHCR and other partner[] NGOs[,] developed Special Operational Procedures (SOP) that give clear guidelines for [the] organization of [the] process of resettlement and inform[ation] of the IDPs. The SOP have been successfully implemented in practice and they are used as a guiding manual in all resettlement processes. 
Georgia, Fourth periodic report to the Human Rights Committee, 1 November 2012, UN Doc. CCPR/GEO/4, submitted 25 June 2012, §§ 30–35.
Germany
In 2004, during a debate in the UN Security Council, the representative of Germany stated:
On the basis of the new report of the Secretary-General that we are considering today, I would like to share with the Council a catalogue of three areas for measures to move our protection agenda forward.
Thirdly, regarding refugees and internally displaced persons, in general, their situation must be improved – and not least, mechanisms for their protection. More has to be done to avoid forced military recruitment, and we have to ensure better support for the return of displaced persons. In that regard, we should examine how to better promote the Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement, which the Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs established in 1998. Better publicity and public awareness would give them more effect and respect. We should also advocate the implementation of those guidelines into the national legislation of States. 
Germany, Statement before the UN Security Council, UN Doc. S/PV.4990, 14 June 2004, pp. 24–25.
Germany
In 2005, in its Seventh Human Rights Policy Report, Germany’s Federal Government reported to the Bundestag (Lower House of Parliament):
With the 1998 guidelines on the handling of crises related to internally displaced persons (“Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement”) by the then Representative of the UN Secretary-General on the Human Rights of Internally Displaced Persons, Francis Deng, the international community has a practice-oriented document, which summarizes existing standards on the protection of internally displaced persons and gives further recommendations. Although these guiding principles are not a binding instrument under international law, their acceptance by States, international organizations and NGOs has continued to grow over the past years, so that now they are virtually regarded as customary international law. 
Germany, Federal Government, Seventh Human Rights Policy Report, 17 June 2005, pp. 97–98.
Germany
In 2010, in its third and fourth periodic reports to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, Germany stated:
As [regards] projects to support children involved in armed conflict, Germany is currently promoting roughly 20 projects with the target group “child soldiers”, especially in the African Great Lakes area. The projects in Africa receiving support from the Federal Government to reintegrate child soldiers are promoted by much more than €100 million, the following being named as examples:
- The Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development is providing support via the GTZ [German Technical Cooperation] for instance with the project entitled “Promotion of Employment for Marginalised Youths” for the return and reintegration of young war refugees to their homes in Sierra Leone. The goal of the project, which is to run until 2013, is for disadvantaged juveniles and young adults to participate actively in their communities’ social, economic and political activities. 
Germany, Third and fourth periodic reports to the Committee on the Rights the Child, 11 September 2012, UN Doc. CRC/C/DEU/3-4, submitted 10 October 2010, § 38.
Guatemala
In 2006, in its initial report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child under the Optional Protocol on the Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict, Guatemala stated:
A crucial aspect of the process of reintegrating thousands of Guatemalan refugees or displaced persons into society was the adoption of a law relaxing the requirements for personal identification documents indicating the civil status of persons affected by the destruction of civil registration records in the armed conflict. Congressional Decree No. 73-95, the Act on Personal Documentation of the Population Displaced by the Internal Armed Conflict, was adopted for that purpose. 
Guatemala, Initial report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child under the Optional Protocol on the Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict, 17 July 2006, UN Doc. CRC/C/OPAC/GTM/1, submitted 17 May 2006, § 158.
[END DATE]
Ireland
In 2009, Ireland’s Minister for Foreign Affairs, in a written response to a question on the situation in Sri Lanka, stated:
As I have stated on many occasions in this House, I am deeply concerned about the situation in Sri Lanka. The immediate priority is still the welfare of the 280,000 or so Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs) currently being held in IDP camps in the north of the country. There is urgent need for … IDPs to be facilitated in returning to their homes as soon as possible … [and] for reconstruction to get underway. 
Ireland, Dáil Eireann (House of Deputies), Minister for Foreign Affairs, Written Answers—Foreign Conflicts (3), Dáil Eireann debate Vol. 690 No. 1, 23 September 2009.
Kenya
In 2010, in its national report to the Human Rights Council, Working Group on the Universal Periodic Review, Kenya stated:
82. Kenya’s post-election violence has displaced more than 600,000 persons within the country since December 2007 … With the establishment of a coalition government on April 14, 2008, there was a need to transition from humanitarian relief to more permanent solutions for the IDPs. Their return from camps to their previous homes has significant political and economic implications for the government. The government’s National Reconciliation and Emergency Social and Economic Recovery Strategy prioritizes quick resettlement, citing: promoting development (particularly in the agricultural sector); improving the national image abroad; preventing IDP camps from becoming fertile grounds for recruitment into militias and criminal gangs; and enhancing human rights of those displaced.
83. Tension and localized violence in some areas continue to prevent the large-scale reintegration or return of the displaced into communities. 
Kenya, National Report to the Human Rights Council, Working Group on the Universal Periodic Review, Eighth Session, Geneva, 3–14 May 2010, UN Doc A/HRC/WG.6/8/KEN/1, 22 February 2010, §§ 82–83.
Lao People’s Democratic Republic
In 1996, in its initial report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, the Lao People’s Democratic Republic stated:
During the war, displacement of Lao children from one locality to another or from one province to another within the country caused few social problems, as according to Lao custom, these children usually stayed with their relatives. The exact number of Lao children who took refuge abroad and subsequently returned is unknown. Nevertheless, the Lao Government, in coordination with UNHCR, has implemented a humanitarian policy outlined in 1977 accepting all Lao refugees, including children, volunteering to return to their country. Repatriated refugees were given assistance in money or in kind, as appropriate.  
Lao People’s Democratic Republic, Initial report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, 24 January 1996, UN Doc. CRC/C/8/Add.32, submitted 18 January 1996, § 160.
Liberia
In 2009, in its combined second, third and fourth periodic reports to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, Liberia stated:
When the war ended, an important part of the work of the Government and its partners was to facilitate the return of internally displaced persons and refugees to Liberia and their communities. The Government worked with LRRC [Refugee Repatriation & Resettlement Commission] and UNHCR to facilitate return and reintegration in 2004. As of 06 December 2005, 253,570 internally displaced persons had been assisted. About 48,663 families were involved. In 2005 253,570 internally displaced persons and 44,064 refugees returned. In 2005, 44,064 refugees returned home. This left about 110,000 still residing in Liberia’s neighbouring countries. About 4,275 children entered reintegration programmes. 
Liberia, Combined second, third and fourth periodic reports to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, 9 November 2011, UN Doc. CRC/C/LBR/2-4, submitted 5 August 2009, § 301.
Nepal
In its National Policies on Internally Displaced Persons adopted in 2007, Nepal stated:
1. Background
Due to natural disasters, human-made circumstances and disasters, armed conflict and situations of violence and fears having [been] created therefrom, persons and families are forcefully displaced from their homes or places of their habitual residence and thus they are time and again required to face such situations that force them to reside in other parts of the country. …
Therefore, the State is required to make appropriate provisions for their return to their place of habitual residence or for settling them voluntarily in other places in the country. …
3. Definition[s]:
For the purpose of these Policies:
(a) “Internally Displaced Person” means a person who is living somewhere else in the country after having [been] forced to flee or leave their home or place of habitual residence due to armed conflict or situation of violence or gross violations of human rights or natural disasters or human-made disasters … or with an intention of avoiding the effects of such situations.
5. Mission
To rehabilitate the internally displaced persons or families with respect, safety and on a voluntary basis and to assist in the reconstruction of physical infrastructure and to adopt preventive as well as sustainable measures for re-socialization in order to prevent the re-emergence of such situations in the future.
6. Objectives
6.3 To create an environment conducive for the safe, voluntary and dignified return of displaced persons or the construction and rehabilitation of social [and] economic infrastructures for their settlement in other locations.
7. Strategies
In order to achieve the objectives of these policies, the following strategies will be adopted:
7.12 Displaced persons or families will be encouraged to voluntarily return to their places of habitual residence. For this purpose, an appropriate rehabilitation plan will be formulated and implemented.
8. Policies
In relation to internal displacement, the following policies will be adopted:
8.3 Regarding Rehabilitation
8.3.1 Displaced persons or families will have the freedom of returning voluntarily to the places of their permanent … [residence] from where they were … [originally] displaced or of residing in the place of current … [residence] or … [of rehabilitation] in other places of their choice within the country. Each of the displaced persons will be provided with opportunities to return to his/her place of habitual residence, … [rehabilitation] and also … integrating with their disintegrated family.
8.3.6 While formulating the necessary [rehabilitation] programmes for … displaced persons …, their participation will be mobilized. Special priority will be given to the participation of women.
9. Programmes
For the implementation of abovementioned strategies and policies, the following programmes will be undertaken:-
9.7 Programmes for returning displaced persons safely to their respective [places of] permanent … [residence]. 
Nepal, National Policies on Internally Displaced Persons, 22 February 2007, §§ 1, 3, 5, 6.3, 7.12, 8.3.1, 8.3.6 and 9.7.
Nigeria
In 2008, in its combined third and fourth periodic reports to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, Nigeria stated:
The armed conflicts in Sierra Leone and Liberia caused an influx of refugees into Nigeria, the bulk of them are women and children. …
In 2006, with [the] assistance of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees in Nigeria a number of refugee children have been repatriated back to their home countries. 
Nigeria, Combined third and fourth periodic reports to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, 5 January 2009, UN Doc. CRC/C/NGA/3-4, submitted 19 May 2008, § 8.2.1.
Peru
In 1996, during a debate in the UN Commission on Human Rights on the issue of internal displacement, Peru reported that “the government [of Peru] was conducting a major resettlement programme, including specific projects in the areas of health, education, communications and emergency assistance”. 
Peru, Statement before the UN Commission on Human Rights, UN Doc. E/CN.4/1996/SR.39, 15 April 1996, § 19.
Philippines
The Guidelines on Evacuations adopted by the Presidential Human Rights Committee of the Philippines in 1991 provide: “Both the Government and Non-Government Organisations shall help in the rehabilitation of evacuees through socio-economic projects, skills formation and education.” 
Philippines, Presidential Human Rights Committee, Res. 91-001 Providing for Guidelines on Evacuations, Manila, 26 March 1991, § 10.
Philippines
In 2002, in a speech during the 6th Asia Pacific-Middle East Regional Conference of the Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies, the President of the Philippines noted:
We thank the Red Cross and the Red Crescent for your valuable assistance in the population movements caused by armed conflict.
I thank you, for instance, that the last of the evacuees of the recent war in Mindanao have gone home. And we thank you for making that easier. We have a ceasefire in place with the Moro Islamic Liberation Front [MILF] and the MILF has started to organize their own NGO that will undertake development projects and receive assistance. 
Philippines, Speech by the President of the Philippines during the 6th Asia Pacific-Middle East Regional Conference of the Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies, 25 November 2002.
Philippines
In 2003, in a statement delivered in Dapitan city in the province of Zamboanga del Norte, the President of the Philippines stated: “We are prepared … to take the initiative in creating the environment for the peaceful return of the Pikit evacuees to their villages”. 
Philippines, Statement by the President of the Philippines during the End-of-Tour Ceremony, 2 April 2003.
Rwanda
In a declaration in 1995, the Rwandan Government stated that displaced persons had a right to humanitarian assistance in order to facilitate their resettlement. 
Rwanda, Declaration of the President on the decision to close the IDP camps of Gikongoro, 24 April 1995, p. 2.
Rwanda
In 2010, in its Comments on the Draft UN Mapping Report on the DRC (Democratic Republic of the Congo), Rwanda stated:
5. … [F]rom 1994 through 2003, Rwanda repatriated and reintegrated 1.5 million Hutu refugees from the former Zaire, and over 1.7 million refugees from Burundi, Tanzania, and Uganda alone …
13. … On 15 November 1996, the AFDL [Alliance of Democratic Forces for the Liberation of Congo] and the RPA [Rwandan Patriotic Army] moved against the ex-FAR [Rwanda Armed Forces, the national armed forces of Rwanda before July 1994] and Interahamwe forces in the camps, and in the process, rescued and repatriated 600,000 Rwandan refugees in the course of four days from the Mugunga camp only. This spectacular return of refugees prompted the mass repatriation of Rwandan refugees from Tanzania and Burundi in the following weeks, allowing the bulk of the Rwandan refugee population to return home.
24. … The intention of the RPA and the conduct of operations around the Mugunga camp aimed at liberating and repatriating innocent civilian refugees. In the conduct of operations, the RPA occupied positions that blocked exits farther inside the former Zaire, and left open safe corridors leading to Rwanda, but never fired any weapons into the camp. Loudspeakers were used to call upon refugees to return to Rwanda …
26. … Again, the priority objective of the operation was to … [allow] all refugees [to] return to Rwanda. In order to facilitate the return of hundreds of thousands of refugees, the APR formed a blocked corridor eastward from Lac Vert to Mugunga through Goma, and finally the border with Rwanda. This corridor kept the refugees from fleeing in the wrong direction, as well as protecting them from outside violence …
55. A total of 1,528,626 Hutu refugees were repatriated and reintegrated from the former Zaire, and 1,763,828 refugees were repatriated and reintegrated from Uganda, Burundi, and Tanzania alone …
56. These numbers illustrate that the GoR [Government of Rwanda] did, indeed, have a clear policy from 1994 through 2003, and that policy continues today: to bring home all Rwandan refugees. This applies to refugees who have never taken a part in the hostilities, and combatants who have chosen to lay down their arms and return. During the timeframe that The Draft Mapping Report alleges genocide, the GoR repatriated over three million Hutu refugees and began down the path of reconciliation with the participation of an additional number of Rwandan Hutu, Tutsi and Twa citizens numbering in the millions who remained in the country. 
Rwanda, Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Cooperation, Official Government of Rwanda Comments on the Draft UN Mapping Report on the DRC, 30 November 2010, §§ 5, 13, 24, 26, 55 and 56.
[footnote in original omitted]
Senegal
In 2011, in its third periodic report to the Committee against Torture, Senegal stated:
- The Committee notes that the conflict in Casamance sometimes impedes effective implementation of the [1984] Convention [against Torture]
187. The comprehensive peace agreement of 30 December 2004 concluded between the Government of Senegal and the Movement of Democratic Forces of Casamance has dramatically improved the situation …
193. Having undertaken to rebuild the region of Casamance, the State of Senegal made a commitment to make every effort to expedite the return of refugees and displaced persons to their homes and to provide them with the necessary support to facilitate their reintegration into Senegalese society. 
Senegal, Third periodic report to the Committee against Torture, 5 October 2011, UN Doc. CAT/C/SEN/3, submitted 9 February 2011, §§ 187 and 193.
Senegal
In 2013, in its third to fifth periodic reports to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, Senegal stated:
M. Measures adopted to protect children in Casamance
137. The Government has already launched a series of measures for this purpose. The National Agency to Revive Economic and Social Activity in Casamance (ANRAC) has been established with annual national funding of around 99 million, plus funding from development partners.
138. The aim of ANRAC is to rehabilitate and rebuild social infrastructure, including roads, schools and health services, and to develop conflict warning and prevention activities, as well as to address the social and environmental impact of conflicts. These activities complement those relating to disarmament, demobilization, resettlement and reintegration, demining and support for displaced persons and refugees returning to their places of origin.
139. … Additionally, in 2007 the Government established a humanitarian demining programme through the National Anti-Mine Centre of Senegal. Demining operations began progressively in 2008 and 16 villages have been cleared, allowing their inhabitants to return. By mid-June 2012, 6 other villages were declared demined and ready to be repopulated. 
Senegal, Third to fifth periodic reports to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, 11 March 2015, UN Doc. CRC/C/SEN/3–5, submitted 29 April 2013, §§ 137–139.
Sierra Leone
In 2006, in its second periodic report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, Sierra Leone stated with regard to the “resettlement and reintegration of displaced and returnee children” following the end of the civil conflict in January 2002:
272. Closely related to the issue of children associated with the fighting forces is the resettlement and reintegration of displaced/separated children as well as returnee children into communities.
273. In its 2005 Midterm Programme Review, UNICEF-Sierra Leone reported that 93 per cent of all registered separated children in Sierra Leone have been reintegrated. The FTR [Family Tracing and Reunification] programme, which comprised key stakeholders in protection matters for children such as the Police, other CPN [Child Protection Partners] partners and local authorities, proved to be efficient and reliable in tracing and reuniting families with their lost children.
274. The International Committee of the Red Cross also supported the FTR programme by publishing pictures of children who had been found along with their biological data to facilitate public identification and tracing. Significant reunification was achieved through this method as well. IRC [International Rescue Committee], a CPN partner, also reports employing various rural/village level reintegration mechanisms for separated and ex-combatant children. Cleansing rituals and family reunification was achieved through these programmes; and in many cases involving sexually-abused child victims, communities accepted the victims and their plights as incidents of war. War Child-Sierra Leone and several other CPN partners also use recreation and psychosocial healing to impact effective reintegration of affected children.
275. The Government particularly reports that in 2003 alone, the Ministry for Social Welfare and its CPN partners together with the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) effectively resettled and reintegrated a total of 478 Sierra Leonean children, comprising 310 boys and 168 girls, from the neighbouring countries of Guinea and Liberia. The Ministry and its partners equally provided alternative care for 408 separated Liberian children as earlier explained. One hundred and thirty one of these Liberian children were subsequently reunified with their families. 
Sierra Leone, Second periodic report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, 8 September 2006, UN Doc. CRC/C/SLE/2, §§ 272–275.
South Africa
In 2013, in a statement before the UN Security Council during an open debate on the protection of civilians in armed conflict on behalf of the members of the Human Security Network and on behalf of South Africa as an observer, the deputy permanent representative of Chile stated:
… We should always keep in mind that one of the most disastrous impacts of conflict is on refugees and internally displaced persons and, therefore, we need to tackle this challenge, by putting forward measures that will facilitate voluntary return, repatriation and reintegration. 
South Africa, Statement by the deputy permanent representative of Chile before the UN Security Council during an open debate on the protection of civilians in armed conflict, made on behalf of the members of the Human Security Network and on behalf of South Africa as an observer, 19 August 2013, pp. 4–5.
Sri Lanka
In 2008, in its initial report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child under the 2000 Optional Protocol on the Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict, Sri Lanka stated:
36. The former Special Representative of the [UN] Secretary-General on Children and Armed Conflict Mr. Olara Otunnu was invited by the Government to visit Sri Lanka in May 1998, to add strength to the advocacy campaign against child recruitment … The LTTE [Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam] made the following commitments in relation to children in armed conflict to Mr. Otunnu during his meeting with the LTTE[:]
(b) The LTTE … agreed to not impede the movement of displaced people to the cleared areas. This involved a commitment by the LTTE not to prevent the return of the displaced Muslim population, which include many women and children, from returning to their homes, and accepted that a framework to monitor this process should be introduced …
37. These commitments were not implemented by the LTTE. 
Sri Lanka, Initial report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child under the Optional Protocol on the Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict, 15 February 2010, UN Doc. CRC/C/OPAC/LKA/1, submitted 16 June 2008, §§ 36(b) and 37.
[footnotes in original omitted]
Switzerland
In 2009, in its Report on Foreign Policy, Switzerland’s Federal Council stated:
Programmes on the civilian promotion of peace will in the future also seek to focus on topics necessary for ensuring the sustainability of peace processes and considered a priority for Switzerland, such as … dealing with the past.
In the context of processes for dealing with the past, Switzerland, for example, supports countries concerned in the realization of their obligations concerning … the return of displaced persons[.] 
Switzerland, Federal Council, Report on Foreign Policy 2009, 2 September 2009, Section 3.3.6.2, p. 5801.
Thailand
In 2011, in its combined third and fourth periodic reports to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, Thailand stated:
Children in temporary shelters for displaced persons fleeing armed conflict
101. The aim of Thailand’s policy towards displaced persons fleeing armed conflict is to provide assistance on a humanitarian basis pending eventual repatriation. …
102. Some of the measures taken to ensure proper care and treatment of these people are:
(a) The establishment of a committee, consisting of representative[s] from relevant agencies, tasked with providing care for displaced persons in temporary refuge and determining [a] long-term plan aimed at eventual repatriation or settlement in a third country;
(c) Development of profile and personal records for care and repatriation;
(g) Preparation for [a] repatriation plan with UNHCR [United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees] and cooperation with the MOE [Ministry of Education] and non-governmental organizations in providing education and vocational training.
(h) Facilitating resettlement in a third country in cooperation with IOM [International Organization for Migration.] 
Thailand, Combined third and fourth periodic reports to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, 14 September 2011, UN Doc. CRC/C/THA/3-4, submitted 11 July 2011, §§ 101 and 102(a), (c), (g) and (h).
Turkey
In its pleadings before the European Court of Human Rights in Akdivar and Others v. Turkey in 1996, the Turkish Government submitted that it had introduced a programme in south-eastern Turkey to facilitate the return of displaced persons to their villages by providing the necessary infrastructure in rural areas. 
Turkey, Pleadings before the European Court of Human Rights, Akdivar and Others v. Turkey, 16 September 1996, p. 20.
UN Security Council
In a resolution adopted in 1993 on Abkhazia, Georgia, the UN Security Council affirmed “the right of refugees and displaced persons to return to their homes” and called on “the parties to facilitate this.” 
UN Security Council, Res. 876, 19 October 1993, § 5, voting record: 15-0-0.
UN Security Council
In two resolutions adopted in 1993 and 1994, the UN Security Council called on all parties “to cooperate with the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) and other humanitarian agencies operating in Mozambique to facilitate the speedy repatriation and resettlement of refugees and displaced persons”. 
UN Security Council, Res. 882, 5 November 1993, § 17; Res. 898, 23 February 1994, § 18, voting record: 15-0-0.
UN Security Council
In a resolution adopted in 1995, the UN Security Council demanded that the Government of Croatia “create conditions conducive to the return of those persons who had left their homes”.  
UN Security Council, Res. 1009, 10 August 1995, § 2, voting record: 15-0-0.
UN Security Council
In a resolution adopted in 1995 on violations of international humanitarian law and of human rights in the territory of the former Yugoslavia, the UN Security Council urged all the parties “to fully cooperate with … efforts [to assist displaced persons], with a view to create conditions conducive to the repatriation and return of refugees and displaced persons in safety and dignity”. 
UN Security Council, Res. 1034, 21 December 1995, § 18, voting record: 15-0-0.
UN Security Council
In a resolution on Angola adopted in 1996, the UN Security Council urged the international community “to fulfil expeditiously its pledges to provide assistance to facilitate … the resettlement of displaced persons”. 
UN Security Council, Res. 1075, 11 October 1996, § 22, voting record: 15-0-0.
UN Security Council
In a resolution on Bosnia and Herzegovina adopted in 1996, the UN Security Council stressed the importance of “facilitating the return or resettlement of refugees and displaced persons which should be gradual and orderly and carried out through progressive, coordinated programmes that address the need for local security, housing and jobs”. 
UN Security Council, Res. 1088, 12 December 1996, § 11, voting record: 18-0-0.
UN Security Council
In a resolution on Croatia adopted in 1997, the UN Security Council noted with concern that “the lack of conditions necessary for the return of displaced persons … prevents the return in any substantial number of those displaced seeking to return”. The Council urged the Government of Croatia:
to create the necessary conditions of security, safety and social and economic opportunity for those returning to their homes in Croatia, including the prompt payment of pensions; and to foster the successful implementation of the Agreement on Operational Procedures of Return. 
UN Security Council, Res. 1120, 14 July 1997, preamble, voting record: 15-0-0.
UN Security Council
In a resolution on Georgia adopted in 1997, the UN Security Council demanded that the Abkhaz side “guarantee the safety of spontaneous returnees already in the area and regularize their status in cooperation with UNHCR and in accordance with the 1994 Quadripartite Agreement”. 
UN Security Council, Res. 1124, 31 July 1997, preamble, §§ 11–12, voting record: 15-0-0.
UN Security Council
In a resolution adopted in 1998 on Kosovo, the UN Security Council underlined the responsibility of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia for creating the conditions which allow “refugees and displaced persons to return to their homes”. 
UN Security Council, Res. 1199, 23 September 1998, § 4(c), voting record: 14-0-1.
In another resolution adopted the same year, the Council demanded that the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia “facilitate, in agreement with UNHCR and the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC), the safe return of refugees and displaced persons to their homes”. 
UN Security Council, Res. 1203, 24 October 1998, § 12, voting record: 13-0-2.
UN Security Council
In a resolution adopted in 1999, the UN Security Council expressed its deep concern about “the large-scale displacement and relocation of East Timorese civilians, including large numbers of women and children” and stressed that it was the responsibility of the Indonesian authorities “to take immediate and effective measures to ensure the safe return of refugees in West Timor and other parts of Indonesia to East Timor”. 
UN Security Council, Res. 1272, 25 October 1999, preamble and § 12, voting record: 15-0-0.
UN Security Council
In a resolution adopted in 2003 on the situation in Georgia, the UN Security Council:
recalls that the Abkhaz side bears a particular responsibility to protect the returnees and to facilitate the return of the remaining displaced population, and requests further measures to be undertaken inter alia by the United Nations Development Programme, the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees and the Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs to create conditions conducive to the return of refugees and internally displaced persons, including through quick-impact projects, to develop their skills and to increase their self-reliance, with full respect for their inalienable right to return to their homes in secure and dignified conditions. 
UN Security Council, Res. 1462, 30 January 2003, § 14, voting record: 15-0-0.
UN Security Council
In a resolution adopted in 2003 on the situation in Georgia, the UN Security Council:
recalls that the Abkhaz side bears a particular responsibility to protect the returnees and to facilitate the return of the remaining displaced population, and requests further measures to be undertaken inter alia by the United Nations Development Programme, the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees and the Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs to create conditions conducive to the return of refugees and internally displaced persons, including through quick-impact projects, to develop their skills and to increase their self-reliance, with full respect for their inalienable right to return to their homes in secure and dignified conditions. 
UN Security Council, Res. 1494, 30 July 2003, § 15, voting record: 15-0-0.
UN Security Council
In a resolution adopted in 2003 on the situation in Liberia, the UN Security Council encouraged “UNMIL, within its capabilities and areas of deployment, to support the voluntary return of refugees and internally displaced persons”. 
UN Security Council, Res. 1509, 19 September 2003, § 6, voting record: 15-0-0.
UN Security Council
In a resolution adopted in 2004 on the situation in Georgia, the UN Security Council:
16. Recalls that the Abkhaz side bears a particular responsibility to protect the returnees and to facilitate the return of the remaining displaced population;
17. Welcomes the mission led by the United Nations Development Programme to the Gali region (December 2003) to assess the feasibility of a sustainable recovery process for the local population and potential returnees and to identify further actions to improve the overall security conditions and ensure sustainable return and looks forward to the publication of the resulting report. 
UN Security Council, Res. 1524, 30 January 2004, §§ 16–17, voting record: 15-0-0.
UN Security Council
In a resolution adopted in 2004 on the situation in Burundi, the UN Security Council requested “all parties and concerned States to facilitate the voluntary, safe and sustainable return of refugees and internally displaced persons, and to cooperate fully to this end with ONUB and the relevant international organizations”. 
UN Security Council, Res. 1545, 21 May 2004, § 13, voting record: 15-0-0.
UN Security Council
In a resolution adopted in 2004 on the Sudan, the UN Security Council stressed “that any return of refugees and displaced persons to their homes must take place voluntarily with adequate assistance and with sufficient security”. 
UN Security Council, Res. 1556, 30 July 2004, preamble, voting record: 13-0-2.
UN Security Council
In a resolution adopted in 2005 on the situation in Georgia, the UN Security Council recalled that “the Abkhaz side bears a particular responsibility to protect the returnees and to facilitate the return of the remaining displaced population”. 
UN Security Council, Res. 1615, 29 July 2005, § 19, voting record: 15-0-0.
UN Security Council
In a resolution adopted in 2006 on reports of the Secretary-General on the Sudan, the UN Security Council:
Decides further that the mandate of UNMIS in Darfur shall also include the following:
(a) To facilitate and coordinate in close cooperation with relevant United Nations agencies, within its capabilities and in its areas of deployment, the voluntary return of refugees and internally displaced persons, and humanitarian assistance inter alia by helping to establish the necessary security conditions in Darfur. 
UN Security Council, Res. 1706, 31 August 2006, § 9, voting record: 12-0-3.
UN Security Council
In 1994 and 1995, in statements by its President on the conflict in Georgia, the UN Security Council called upon the Abkhaz party “to take all necessary measures, in cooperation with UNHCR, to ensure a speedy and organized voluntary return of refugees and displaced persons”. 
UN Security Council, Statement by the President, UN Doc. S/PRST/1994/78, 2 December 1994, p. 1; Statement by the President, UN Doc. S/PRST/1995/12, 17 March 1995, p. 2.
UN Security Council
In 1995, in a statement by its President on Abkhazia, Georgia, the UN Security Council urged “the Abkhaz authorities to accelerate the return process significantly, to guarantee the safety of all returnees and to regularize the status of spontaneous returnees”. 
UN Security Council, Statement by the President, UN Doc. S/PRST/1995/39, 18 August 1995.
UN Security Council
In 1995, in a statement by its President, the UN Security Council called on the Government of Rwanda and the international community to intensify efforts “to bring about a climate of trust and confidence which would assist in the early and safe return of refugees”. 
UN Security Council, Statement by the President, UN Doc. S/PRST/1995/22, 27 April 1995, pp. 1–2.
UN Security Council
In 1997, in a statement by its President on Georgia, the UN Security Council encouraged the UN Secretary-General “to take such steps as are necessary, in cooperation with the parties, in order to ensure a prompt and safe return of the refugees and displaced persons to their homes”. 
UN Security Council, Statement by the President, UN Doc. S/PRST/1997/25, 8 May 1997, p. 2.
UN Security Council
In 2003, in a statement by its President regarding the situation in Somalia, the UN Security Council urged:
the Somalia leaders to live up to their commitments under the “Eldoret Declaration”, to facilitate the delivery of much-needed humanitarian assistance, to assure the safety of all international and national aid workers, to provide immediate safe access for all humanitarian personnel, and to support the return and reintegration of refugees. 
UN Security Council, Statement by the President, UN Doc. S/PRST/2003/2, 12 March 2003, pp. 2–3.
UN Security Council
In 2003, in a statement by its President on the importance of mine action for peacekeeping operations, the UN Security Council urged:
Member States, as appropriate, to provide adequate and sustained financial assistance to support mine action and alleviate the suffering of populations affected by mines and unexploded ordnance, and whenever possible, increase their support through further contributions to the Voluntary Trust Fund for Assistance in Mine Action and call[ed] particular attention to the need to address the socio-economic, physical and psychosocial reintegration of landmine survivors, the need to facilitate the orderly return of refugees and internally displaced persons affected by mines and unexploded ordnance, the need to restore land to productive use, and the need to prioritize mine action efforts to enable the risk-free movement of people and goods. 
UN Security Council, Statement by the President, UN Doc. S/PRST/2003/22, 19 November 2003, p. 2.
UN Security Council
In 2004, in a statement by its President concerning the situation in the Darfur region of Sudan, the UN Security Council emphasized “the need for the Government of Sudan to facilitate the voluntary and safe return of refugees and displaced persons to their homes, and to provide protection for them, and also calls upon all parties, including opposition groups, to support these objectives”. 
UN Security Council, Statement by the President, UN Doc. S/PRST/2004/18, 25 May 2004, p. 1.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 1950, the UN General Assembly adopted the Statute of the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, which provides: “The High Commissioner shall engage in such additional activities, including repatriation and resettlement, as the UN General Assembly may determine.” 
UN General Assembly, Res. 428 (V), 14 December 1950, § 9, voting record: 36-5-11-8.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 1991, the UN General Assembly appealed to all parties to the conflict in Afghanistan “to cooperate fully especially on the subject of mine detection and clearance, in order to facilitate the return of refugees and displaced persons to their homes in safety and dignity, in conformity with the Agreements on the Settlement of the Situation Relating to Afghanistan”. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 46/136, 17 December 1991, § 16, adopted without a vote.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 1993 on the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, the UN General Assembly:
Urges all States and relevant organizations to support the High Commissioner’s search for durable solutions to refugee problems, including voluntary repatriation, integration in the country of asylum and resettlement in a third country, as appropriate, and welcomes in particular the ongoing efforts of her Office to pursue wherever possible opportunities to promote conditions conducive to the preferred solution of voluntary repatriation. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 48/116, 20 December 1993, § 10, adopted without a vote.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 1994 on the situation of human rights in Rwanda, the UN General Assembly stressed “the need to create an environment conducive to the realization of civil, political, economic, social and cultural rights and to the return by refugees and displaced persons to their homes”. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 49/206, 23 December 1994, § 8, adopted without a vote.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 1995 on the situation of human rights in the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Republic of Croatia and the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro), the UN General Assembly called upon the Government of Croatia “to remove all legal and administrative hurdles which are preventing the return of refugees and displaced persons”. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 50/193, 22 December 1995, § 128(b), voting record: 144-1-20-20.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 1998 on the situation of human rights in Kosovo, the UN General Assembly called upon the authorities of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and ethnic Albanian leaders “to allow for and facilitate the free and unhindered return to their homes, in safety and dignity, of all internally displaced persons and refugees” and expressed “its concern about reports of continuing harassment or other impediments in this regard”. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 53/164, 9 December 1998, § 23), voting record: 122-3-34-26.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 1999 on the situation of human rights in Kosovo, the UN General Assembly stressed “the importance of and the responsibility of all parties to create a secure environment in Kosovo that will allow refugees and displaced persons to return”. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 54/183, 17 December 1999, § 13), voting record: 108-4-45-31.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2000, the UN General Assembly urged all parties to the continuing conflict in the Sudan:
To respect and protect human rights and fundamental freedoms [and] to respect fully international humanitarian law, thereby facilitating the voluntary return, repatriation and reintegration of refugees and internally displaced persons to their homes. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 55/116, 4 December 2000, § 3(b), voting record: 85-32-49-23.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2003 on Afghanistan, the UN General Assembly:
Calls for continued international assistance to the vast number of Afghan refugees and internally displaced persons to facilitate their safe and orderly return and sustainable reintegration into society so as to contribute to the stability of the entire country. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 58/27 A, 5 December 2003, § 16, adopted without a vote.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2003 on assistance for humanitarian relief, rehabilitation and development for Timor-Leste, the UN General Assembly:
Welcomes the efforts of the Government of Indonesia and relevant intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations in providing humanitarian assistance to the refugees of Timor-Leste in the Indonesian province of East Nusa Tenggara, in facilitating their return to and reintegration in Timor-Leste or in assisting with their local integration and resettlement, as appropriate, in Indonesia. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 58/121, 17 December 2003, preamble, adopted without a vote.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2003 on assistance to refugees, returnees and displaced persons in Africa, the UN General Assembly called upon:
African States, the international community and relevant United Nations organizations to take concrete action to meet the needs of refugees, returnees and displaced persons for protection and assistance and to contribute generously to national projects and programmes aimed at alleviating their plight. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 58/149, 22 December 2003, § 10, adopted without a vote.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2004 on humanitarian and special economic assistance to Serbia and Montenegro, the UN General Assembly:
1. Calls upon all States, regional organizations, intergovernmental and nongovernmental organizations and other relevant bodies to continue to provide assistance to alleviate the needs of refugees and internally displaced persons, bearing in mind in particular the special situation of women, children, the elderly and other vulnerable groups, and to assist financially and otherwise in seeking durable solutions for a safe return of refugees and internally displaced persons to their places of origin, or for settlement at their place of refuge for those who want to integrate locally, in cooperation with the local authorities, with a successive transition to development projects aimed at durable solutions to those questions.
5. Welcomes the continued commitment of Serbia and Montenegro and encourages it to cooperate further with the United Nations system as well as development and humanitarian organizations to address the needs of the affected population, including refugees and internally displaced persons, and urges the relevant authorities and the international community to support and stimulate development assistance for the implementation of the National Strategy for Resolving Problems of Refugees and Internally Displaced Persons, national strategies for poverty reduction and other programmes that will ensure that the needs of the vulnerable refugees and internally displaced persons in Serbia and Montenegro are met and to pursue durable solutions to their plight, in particular voluntary repatriation and reintegration, stresses the need to create conditions that are conducive to their safe return, and emphasizes in this regard the importance of regional cooperation in the search for solutions to the plight of refugees;
6. Urges the relevant government authorities in Serbia and Montenegro to develop, with the assistance of the United Nations system, national policies for comprehensive durable solutions for internally displaced persons based on the Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement, and in that regard invites the United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo to strengthen its efforts, within its mandate, in coordination with relevant government authorities in Serbia and Montenegro, for the establishment of the necessary conditions for the safe and sustainable return of internally displaced persons. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 59/215, 22 December 2004, §§ 1 and 5–6, adopted without a vote.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2004 on assistance for the rehabilitation and reconstruction of Liberia, the UN General Assembly:
7. Urges the National Transitional Government and all States to facilitate and support the return and reintegration of ex-combatants into their home communities, with special attention to children;
8. Commends the Secretary-General for his continuing efforts to mobilize international assistance for the development and reconstruction of Liberia, and requests him to continue his efforts to mobilize all possible assistance within the United Nations system to help in the reconstruction and development of Liberia and in the return and reintegration of refugees, displaced persons and demobilized soldiers. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 59/219, 22 December 2004, §§ 7–8, adopted without a vote.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2006 on the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, the UN General Assembly:
Recalls the important role of effective partnerships and coordination in meeting the needs of refugees and in finding durable solutions to their situations, welcomes the efforts under way, in cooperation with countries hosting refugees and countries of origin, including their respective local communities, United Nations agencies and other development actors, to promote a framework for durable solutions, particularly in protracted refugee situations, which includes the “4Rs” approach (repatriation, reintegration, rehabilitation and reconstruction) to sustainable return, and encourages States, in cooperation with United Nations agencies and other development actors, to support, inter alia, through the allocation of funds, the development and implementation of the 4Rs and other programming tools to facilitate the transition from relief to development. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 61/137, 19 December 2006, § 17, adopted without a vote.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2006 on assistance to refugees, returnees and displaced persons in Africa, the UN General Assembly:
Calls upon the international community, including States and the Office of the High Commissioner and other relevant United Nations organizations, within their respective mandates, to take concrete action to meet the protection and assistance needs of refugees, returnees and displaced persons and to contribute generously to projects and programmes aimed at alleviating their plight and facilitating durable solutions for refugees and displaced persons. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 61/139, 19 December 2006, § 11, adopted without a vote.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2006 on international assistance for the economic rehabilitation of Angola, the UN General Assembly recognized “the primary responsibility of the Government of Angola for the welfare of its citizens, including returning refugees and internally displaced persons, together with the support of the international community”. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 61/219, 20 December 2006, § 2, adopted without a vote.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2007 on the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, the UN General Assembly:
19. Recalls the important role of effective partnerships and coordination in meeting the needs of refugees and in finding durable solutions to their situations, welcomes the efforts under way, in cooperation with countries hosting refugees and countries of origin, including their respective local communities, relevant United Nations agencies, international and intergovernmental organizations, regional organizations, as appropriate, non-governmental organizations and development actors, to promote a framework for durable solutions, particularly in protracted refugee situations, which includes an approach to sustainable and timely return which encompasses repatriation, reintegration, rehabilitation and reconstruction activities, and encourages States, in cooperation with relevant United Nations agencies, international and intergovernmental organizations, regional organizations, non-governmental organizations and development actors, to support, inter alia, through the allocation of funds, the implementation of such a framework to facilitate an effective transition from relief to development;
20. Recognizes that no solution to displacement can be durable unless it is sustainable, and therefore encourages the Office of the High Commissioner to support the sustainability of return and reintegration. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 62/124, 18 December 2007, §§ 19–20, adopted without a vote.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2007 on assistance to refugees, returnees and displaced persons in Africa, the UN General Assembly:
10. Recognizes that no solution to displacement can be durable unless it is sustainable, and therefore encourages the Office of the High Commissioner to support the sustainability of return and reintegration;
13. Calls upon the international community, including States and the Office of the High Commissioner and other relevant United Nations organizations, within their respective mandates, to take concrete action to meet the protection and assistance needs of refugees, returnees and displaced persons and to contribute generously to projects and programmes aimed at alleviating their plight and facilitating durable solutions for refugees and displaced persons. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 62/125, 18 December 2007, §§ 10 and 13, adopted without a vote.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2007 on the protection of and assistance to internally displaced persons, the UN General Assembly:
8. Notes the importance of taking the human rights and the specific protection and assistance needs of internally displaced persons into consideration, when appropriate, in peace processes, and emphasizes that durable solutions for internally displaced persons, including through voluntary return, sustainable reintegration and rehabilitation processes and their active participation, as appropriate, in the peacebuilding process, are necessary elements of effective peacebuilding;
15. Calls upon Governments to provide protection and assistance, including reintegration and development assistance, to internally displaced persons, and to facilitate the efforts of relevant United Nations agencies and humanitarian organizations in these respects, including by further improving access to internally displaced persons. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 62/153, 18 December 2007, §§ 8 and 15, adopted without a vote.
UN Economic and Social Council
In a resolution adopted in 2003 on the situation of and assistance to Palestinian women, ECOSOC called upon “Israel to facilitate the return of all refugees and displaced Palestinian women and children to their homes and properties, in compliance with the relevant United Nations resolutions”. 
ECOSOC, Res. 2003/42, 22 July 2003, § 4, voting record: 42-2-4.
This call was reiterated in subsequent resolutions adopted in 2004, 2005, 2006 and 2007. 
ECOSOC, Res. 2004/56, 23 July 2004, § 4, voting record: 49-1-3; Res. 2005/43, 26 July 2005, § 4, voting record: 46-2-4; Res. 2006/8, 25 July 2006, § 4, voting record: 38-2-1; Res. 2007/7, 24 July 2007, § 4, voting record: 38-2-1.
UN Commission on Human Rights
In a resolution adopted in 1996 on the situation of human rights in the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Republic of Croatia and the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro), the UN Commission on Human Rights expressed its concern over continuing human rights violations in Bosnia and Herzegovina, including “actions that undermine the principle of the right to return, including … resettlement of displaced persons in homes which, under the agreement reached in Geneva on 18 March 1996, should remain vacant for six months”. 
UN Commission on Human Rights, Res. 1996/71, 23 April 1996, § 3(b).
UN Commission on Human Rights
In a resolution adopted in 1999 on the situation of human rights in Burundi, the UN Commission on Human Rights encouraged “continued efforts to dismantle the regroupment camps and the return of displaced persons to their villages as and when security conditions permit”. 
UN Commission on Human Rights, Res. 1999/10, 23 April 1999, § 6.
UN Commission on Human Rights
In a resolution adopted in 2001, the UN Commission on Human Rights urged all parties to the continuing conflict in the Sudan “to respect and protect human rights and fundamental freedoms, to respect fully international humanitarian law, thereby facilitating the voluntary return, repatriation and reintegration of refugees and internally displaced persons to their homes”. 
UN Commission on Human Rights, Res. 2001/18, 20 April 2001, § 3(a), voting record: 28-0-25.
UN Commission on Human Rights
In a resolution adopted in 2003 on internally displaced persons, the UN Commission on Human Rights:
2. Expresses concern at the persistent problems of large numbers of internally displaced persons worldwide, in particular the risk of extreme poverty and socio-economic exclusion, their limited access to humanitarian assistance, vulnerability to human rights violations, as well as difficulties resulting from their specific situation, such as lack of food, medication or shelter and issues pertinent during their reintegration, including, in appropriate cases, the need for the restitution of or compensation for property;
4. Notes the importance of taking the human rights and the specific protection and assistance needs of internally displaced persons into consideration, when appropriate, in peace processes and in reintegration and rehabilitation processes;
10. Calls upon Governments to provide protection and assistance, including reintegration and development assistance, to internally displaced persons, to develop national policies aimed at addressing their plight, as well as to ensure that they benefit from public services, in particular basic social services such as health services and education, based on the principle of non-discrimination, and to facilitate the efforts of relevant United Nations agencies and humanitarian organizations in these respects, including by improving access to internally displaced persons;
12. Stresses the need to further strengthen inter-agency arrangements and the capacities of United Nations agencies and other relevant actors to meet the immense humanitarian challenge of internal displacement, and calls upon States to provide adequate resources for programmes to assist and protect internally displaced persons with a view to enhancing the capacities of countries with situations of internal displacement, and of the relevant intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations, to meet the needs of internally displaced persons. 
UN Commission on Human Rights, Res. 2003/51, 23 April 2003, §§ 2, 4, 10 and 12, adopted without a vote.
UN Commission on Human Rights
In a resolution adopted in 2003 on human rights and mass exoduses, the UN Commission on Human Rights:
Emphasizes the responsibility of all States and international organizations to cooperate with those countries, particularly developing countries, affected by mass exoduses of refugees and displaced persons, and calls upon Governments, the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, other relevant parts of the United Nations system and other humanitarian and development organizations to continue to respond to the assistance and protection needs which exist in countries hosting large numbers of refugees and displaced persons until durable solutions are found. 
UN Commission on Human Rights, Res. 2003/52, 24 April 2003, § 4, adopted without a vote.
UN Commission on Human Rights
In a resolution adopted in 2003 on assistance to Somalia in the field of human rights, the UN Commission on Human Rights called upon:
All relevant authorities and Member States to provide support for the voluntary return and reintegration of Somali refugees and the provision of urgent humanitarian assistance to, and protection for, those who have been internally displaced. 
UN Commission on Human Rights, Res. 2003/78, 25 April 2003, § 8(n), adopted without a vote.
UN Commission on Human Rights
In a resolution adopted in 2004 on internally displaced persons, the UN Commission on Human Rights:
2. Expresses concern at the persistent problems of large numbers of internally displaced persons worldwide, in particular the risk of extreme poverty and socioeconomic exclusion, their limited access to humanitarian assistance, vulnerability to human rights violations, as well as difficulties resulting from their specific situation, such as lack of food, medication or shelter and issues pertinent during their reintegration, including, in appropriate cases, the need for the restitution of or compensation for property;
4. Notes the importance of taking the human rights and the specific protection and assistance needs of internally displaced persons into consideration, when appropriate, in peace processes and in reintegration and rehabilitation processes;
9. Calls upon Governments to provide protection and assistance, including reintegration and development assistance, to internally displaced persons, to develop national policies aimed at addressing their plight, as well as to ensure that they benefit from public services, in particular basic social services such as health services and education, based on the principle of non-discrimination, and to facilitate the efforts of relevant United Nations agencies and humanitarian organizations in these respects, including by improving access to internally displaced persons;
11. Encourages all Governments, in particular Governments of countries with situations of internal displacement, to facilitate United Nations activities and to respond favourably to requests for visits as well as for information, and urges Governments as well as the relevant parts of the United Nations system, also at the country level, to follow up effectively on United Nations recommendations and to make available information on measures taken in this regard;
12. Stresses the need to strengthen further inter-agency arrangements and the capacities of United Nations agencies and other relevant actors to meet the immense humanitarian challenge of internal displacement, and calls upon States to provide adequate resources for programmes to assist and protect internally displaced persons with a view to enhancing the capacities of countries with situations of internal displacement, and of the relevant intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations, to meet the needs of internally displaced persons. 
UN Commission on Human Rights, Res. 2004/55, 20 April 2004, §§ 2, 4, 9 and 11–12, adopted without a vote.
UN Commission on Human Rights
In a resolution adopted in 2004 on assistance to Somalia in the field of human rights, the UN Commission on Human Rights:
11. Calls upon:
(h) All relevant authorities and Member States to provide support for the voluntary return and reintegration of Somali refugees and the provision of urgent and extensive humanitarian assistance to, and protection for, those who have been internally displaced;
(i) All relevant international stakeholders to support the United Nations Joint Action and Recovery Plan for Somalia, which seeks to find sustainable solutions for the reintegration and resettlement of internally displaced persons. 
UN Commission on Human Rights, Res. 2004/80, 21 April 2004, § 11(h)–(i), adopted without a vote.
UN Commission on Human Rights
In a resolution adopted in 2004 on advisory services and technical assistance in Burundi, the UN Commission on Human Rights:
Encourages the continuing voluntary repatriation of refugees … calls on the parties concerned to establish and promote conditions permitting voluntary, permanent return in full security, further recommends the Transitional Government and humanitarian partners to provide the displaced persons with humanitarian assistance and to facilitate their return and reintegration, and encourages the Transitional Government to continue the settlement of disputes relating to the property of repatriated and displaced persons. 
UN Commission on Human Rights, Res. 2004/82, 21 April 2004, § 8, adopted without a vote.
UN Commission on Human Rights
In a resolution adopted in 2004 on technical cooperation and advisory services in Liberia, the UN Commission on Human Rights calls upon the international community:
To mobilize the necessary resources to enable the National Transitional Government to implement relief and recovery programmes, including repatriation and resettlement of internally displaced persons and refugees, and, to this end, to implement the decisions taken by the International Reconstruction Conference for Liberia. 
UN Commission on Human Rights, Res. 2004/83, 21 April 2004, § 6(b), adopted without a vote.
UN Commission on Human Rights
In a resolution adopted in 2004 on technical cooperation and advisory services in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, the UN Commission on Human Rights urged all parties “to apply all necessary measures to encourage the voluntary return of all refugees and displaced persons”. 
UN Commission on Human Rights, Res. 2004/84, 21 April 2004, § 4(e), adopted without a vote.
UN Commission on Human Rights
In a resolution adopted in 2005 on internally displaced persons, the UN Commission on Human Rights:
3. Expresses concern at the persistent problems of large numbers of internally displaced persons worldwide, in particular the risk of extreme poverty and socioeconomic exclusion, their limited access to humanitarian assistance, vulnerability to human rights violations, as well as difficulties resulting from their specific situation, such as lack of food, medication or shelter and issues pertinent during their reintegration, including, in appropriate cases, the need for the restitution of or compensation for property;
5. Notes the importance of taking the human rights and the specific protection and assistance needs of internally displaced persons into consideration, when appropriate, in peace processes and in reintegration and rehabilitation processes;
10. Calls upon Governments to provide protection and assistance, including reintegration and development assistance, to internally displaced persons, to develop national policies aimed at addressing their plight, as well as to ensure that they benefit from public services, in particular basic social services such as health services and education, based on the principle of nondiscrimination, and to facilitate the efforts of relevant United Nations agencies and humanitarian organizations in these respects, including by improving access to internally displaced persons. 
UN Commission on Human Rights, Res. 2005/46, 19 April 2005, §§ 3, 5 and 10, adopted without a vote.
UN Commission on Human Rights
In a resolution adopted in 2005 on human rights and mass exoduses, the UN Commission on Human Rights:
14. Welcomes the efforts of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights to contribute to the creation of an environment for a viable and sustainable return of refugees and displaced persons in post-conflict societies through initiatives such as the rehabilitation of the justice system, including mechanisms for restoration of property and compensation and reparations as appropriate, the creation of independent national institutions capable of defending human rights, broad-based programmes of human rights education and the strengthening of local non-governmental organizations through field presences and programmes of advisory services and technical cooperation, and calls on the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights to strengthen its efforts in these areas;
15. Encourages the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, other relevant components of the United Nations system, other humanitarian organizations and regional organizations to continue to cooperate within their respective mandates and in accordance with international law in the creation of an environment for a viable and sustainable return of refugees and displaced persons in post-conflict societies. 
UN Commission on Human Rights, Res. 2005/48, 19 April 2005, §§ 14–15, adopted without a vote.
UN Commission on Human Rights
In a resolution adopted in 2005 on advisory services and technical assistance in Burundi, the UN Commission on Human Rights:
Encourages the continuing voluntary repatriation of refugees … calls upon the parties concerned to establish and promote conditions permitting voluntary, permanent return in full security, recommends to the Transitional Government and humanitarian partners that they provide the displaced persons with humanitarian assistance and facilitate their return and reintegration, and encourages the Transitional Government to continue the settlement of disputes relating to the property of repatriated and displaced persons. 
UN Commission on Human Rights, Res. 2005/75, 20 April 2005, § 11, adopted without a vote.
UN Commission on Human Rights
In a resolution adopted in 2005 on technical cooperation and advisory services in Nepal, the UN Commission on Human Rights:
Calls upon the Government of Nepal to provide urgent protection and assistance to internally displaced persons, taking account of the particular needs of women and children, to facilitate their safe return, reintegration and resettlement elsewhere in the country, as appropriate, and to develop appropriate policies and legislation in this regard, using the Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement. 
UN Commission on Human Rights, Res. 2005/78, 20 April 2005, § 9, adopted without a vote.
UN Commission on Human Rights
In a resolution adopted in 2005 on assistance to Somalia in the field of human rights, the UN Commission on Human Rights called upon:
The United Nations, nongovernmental organizations and the Bretton Woods institutions to … provide support for the voluntary return and reintegration of Somali refugees and the provision of urgent and extensive humanitarian assistance to, and protection for, those who have been internally displaced. 
UN Commission on Human Rights, Res. 2005/83, 21 April 2005, § 8(d), adopted without a vote.
UN Sub-Commission on Human Rights
In a resolution adopted in 1992, the UN Sub-Commission on Human Rights exhorted the Government of Guatemala “to adopt measures to facilitate the return to their places of origin of refugees and displaced persons within the country who wish to do so while at the same time extending all guarantees of security and full respect for human rights”. 
UN Sub-Commission on Human Rights, Res. 1992/18, 27 August 1992, preamble and § 7.
UN Sub-Commission on Human Rights
In a resolution adopted in 1993, the UN Sub-Commission on Human Rights exhorted the Government of Guatemala “to continue its constructive dialogue with refugees and internally displaced persons in order to resolve satisfactorily the question of their resettlement in Guatemala in conditions of dignity and security”. 
UN Sub-Commission on Human Rights, Res. 1993/16, 20 August 1993, § 5.
UN High Commissioner for Refugees Executive Committee
In 1980, in its Conclusion on Voluntary Repatriation, the UNHCR Executive Committee “recognized the importance of refugees being provided with the necessary information regarding conditions in their country of origin in order to facilitate their decision to repatriate”. 
UNHCR, Executive Committee, Conclusion No. 18 (XXXI): Voluntary Repatriation, 16 October 1980, § e.
UN High Commissioner for Refugees Executive Committee
In 1996, in its Conclusion on humanitarian issues in the territory of the former Yugoslavia, the UNHCR Executive Committee called upon:
Governments of the countries of origin to create conditions for and to ensure the organized return of refugees and displaced persons in safety and dignity in a phased and coordinated manner, in cooperation with and with the assistance of UNHCR, the host countries and the international community as a whole. 
UNHCR, Conclusion on Humanitarian Issues in the Territory of the Former Yugoslavia, UN Doc. A/50/12/Add.1, 1 January 1996, § 31(e).
UNHCR Executive Committee
In 2007, in its Conclusion on Children at Risk, the UNHCR Executive Committee recommended that States, UNHCR and other relevant agencies and partners:
Facilitate the integration of internally displaced children in places of settlement through targeted action in support of their integration as fully included members of the community, including by taking measures to address discrimination faced by internally displaced children. 
UNHCR, Executive Committee, Conclusion No. 107 (LVIII): Children at Risk, 5 October 2007, preamble, § h(xvi).
UN Secretary-General
In 1992, in a report on Cambodia, the UN Secretary-General reported that among the objectives set for repatriation and resettlement were the identification and provision of agricultural and settlement land, installation assistance, and food for an average of one year for up to 360,000 returnees, as well as the provision of limited reintegration assistance and infrastructural improvements. He noted that there was a need to identify and allocate land for resettlement and that this process would require detailed mine verification. Resettlement packages for returnees would include basic housing materials, sawn timber, poles, bamboo, plastic tarpaulin sheeting, construction tools, as well as household items and agricultural tools, and an allowance for local purchases. It was foreseen in the repatriation component of the report that food assistance would be provided for an average period of 12 months at distribution points close to the final destination of returning displaced persons. 
UN Secretary-General, Report on Cambodia, UN Doc. S/23613, 19 February 1992, pp. 33–35, §§ 132–146.
UN Secretary-General
In 1995, in a report on the situation in Tajikistan, the UN Secretary-General reported that:
As a result of the fourth round of inter-Tajik talks … the parties agreed to step up their efforts to ensure the voluntary, safe and dignified return of all refugees and internally displaced persons to their places of permanent residence and adopted concrete measures to that end. 
UN Secretary-General, Report on the situation in Tajikistan, UN Doc. S/1995/472, 10 June 1995, § 8(c).
UN Secretary-General
In 1996, in a report on the situation in Abkhazia, Georgia, the UN Secretary-General reported that:
The Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), in close cooperation with non-governmental organizations, initiated … three major projects … to support the reintegration of those persons who have returned to their places of residence. The first project consists of the rehabilitation of 23 schools in the security zone, including the supply of school furniture. The second project supports the Gali hospital by providing medical equipment. The third project is intended to increase the corn harvest by distributing seeds, fertilizer and diesel oil. 
UN Secretary-General, Report concerning the situation in Abkhazia, Georgia, UN Doc. S/1996/ 507, 1 July 1996, § 16.
UN Secretary-General
In 1997, in a report on UNAVEM in Angola, the UN Secretary-General highlighted the need to coordinate the voluntary return of groups of internally displaced persons and to develop resettlement plans. 
UN Secretary-General, Progress report on the UNAVEM, UN Doc. S/1997/438, 5 June 1997, p. 6, § 21.
UN Secretary-General (Representative)
In 1997, in a report on his visit to Mozambique, the Representative of the UN Secretary-General on Internally Displaced Persons reported that:
A major rehabilitation programme was launched in 1993 in order to promote and support the return and reintegration process. It was considered that durable reintegration could only be effected if minimum conditions were put in place to reduce the vulnerability of the rural population to new displacements. 
Representative of the UN Secretary-General on Internally Displaced Persons, Report on the Representative’s visit to Mozambique from 23 November to 3 December 1996, UN Doc. E/CN.4/1997/43/Add.1, 24 February 1997, § 64.
UN Commission on Human Rights (Special Rapporteur)
In 1996, in a report on a mission to Burundi, the Special Rapporteur of the UN Commission on Human Rights on Extra-judicial, Arbitrary or Summary Executions stated:
The government of Burundi should elaborate and implement, without delay, a policy to improve security, which would enable the displaced … population … to return to their communes and would facilitate their reintegration and reinstallation. 
UN Commission on Human Rights, Special Rapporteur on Extrajudicial, Summary or Arbitrary Executions, Report on the Special Rapporteur’s mission to Burundi, 19–29 April 1995, UN Doc. E/CN.4/1996/4/Add.1, 24 July 1995, § 98.
UN Commission on Human Rights (Special Rapporteur)
In 1996, in a report on the situation of human rights in Afghanistan, the Special Rapporteur of the UN Commission on Human Rights suggested that:
Food, shelter and the minimum requirements for basic living should be provided [to returnees]. Priority should be given to ensuring access to food and a safe environment, free from physical dangers. This will require continued implementing of the land-mines-clearance programmes, providing medical treatment, and locating safe sources of water. 
UN Commission on Human Rights, Special Rapporteur on the Situation of Human Rights in Afghanistan, Final report, UN Doc. E/CN.4/1996/64, 27 February 1996, § 110.
UN Commission on Human Rights (Special Rapporteur)
In 1996, in a report on a visit to Rwanda, the Special Rapporteur of the UN Commission on Human Rights for Zaire recommended that “the government establish resettlement programmes” to facilitate the return of internally displaced persons and that these programmes should cover “housing, education, health and, above all, security for all, especially women and children”.  
UN Commission on Human Rights, Special Rapporteur on the Situation of Human Rights in Zaire, Report on the Special Rapporteur’s visit to Rwanda, 6–14 July 1996, concerning ethnic conflict in the Northern Kivu region, UN Doc. E/CN.4/1997/6/Add.1, 16 September 1996, § 126 (j).
UN Commission on Human Rights (Special Rapporteur)
In 1996, in a report on the situation of human rights in the territory of the former Yugoslavia, the Special Rapporteur of the UN Commission on Human Rights noted that, in spite of the provisions contained in the 1995 Dayton Accords, the authorities in the Republika Srpska had actively prevented displaced Bosniacs from returning to their villages. 
UN Commission on Human Rights, Special Rapporteur on the Situation of Human Rights in the Former Yugoslavia, Periodic report, UN Doc. E/CN.4/1997/9, 22 October 1996, § 13.
UNHCR Standing Committee
In 1998, in a report on developments in the former Yugoslavia, the UNHCR Standing Committee welcomed the “Open Cities” initiative, whereby municipalities agreed to facilitate the return of minorities in combination with assistance from the international community. 
UNHCR, Standing Committee Report: Update on Regional Developments in the Former Yugoslavia, UN Doc. EC/48/SC/CRP.10, 2 April 1998, §§ 5, 21 and 22.
High Representative for the Implementation of the Peace Agreement on Bosnia and Herzegovina
In a report in 1996, the High Representative for the Implementation of the Peace Agreement on Bosnia and Herzegovina stated: “A significant proportion of displaced persons and refugees will return voluntarily if, in practice, a secure and safe environment exists, and if adequate shelter and essential services are available or likely to become so soon.” 
High Representative for the implementation of the Bosnian peace agreement, Report, UN Doc. S/1996/190, 14 March 1996, § 70.
Council of Europe Parliamentary Assembly
In several recommendations on Kosovo adopted in 1998, the Council of Europe Parliamentary Assembly emphasized that the authorities of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and Serbia must create the material and security conditions necessary to enable IDPs and refugees to return voluntarily in safety and dignity to their own homes. 
Council of Europe, Parliamentary Assembly, Rec. 1376, 24 June 1998, § 12(iv); Rec. 1384, 24 September 1998, § 2; Rec. 1385, 24 September 1998, § 2.
OAU Council of Ministers
In several resolutions and decisions adopted between 1995 and 1997, the OAU Council of Ministers urged member States to create conditions conducive to the voluntary return of displaced persons to their places of habitual residence and to facilitate this process. 
OAU, Council of Ministers, Res. 1589 (LXII), 21–23 June 1995, § 9; Res. 1653 (LXIV), 1–5 July 1996, § 4; Doc. CM/Draft/Dec. (LXV) Rev.1, 24–28 February 1997, p. 14; Decision 362 (LXVI), 28–31 May 1997, § e.
Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe
In the Final Declaration of the Kosovo International Human Rights Conference in 1999, the OSCE stated: “Conditions have to be created to allow for the safe return of refugees and internally displaced persons across Kosovo.” 
OSCE, Kosovo International Human Rights Conference, Pristina, 10–11 December 1999, Final Declaration, § 4.
International Conference of the Red Cross (1969)
The 21st International Conference of the Red Cross in 1969 adopted a resolution on the implementation of the 1949 Geneva Convention IV, particularly in the occupied territories in the Middle East, in which it requested the authorities concerned “to fulfil their humanitarian obligations by facilitating the return of the people to their homes and their reintegration into their communities”. 
21st International Conference of the Red Cross, Istanbul, 6–13 September 1969, Res. X, § 3.
International Conference of the Red Cross (1973)
The 22nd International Conference of the Red Cross in 1973 adopted a resolution on the application of the 1949 Geneva Convention IV in the Middle East in which it requested the authorities concerned “to fulfil their humanitarian obligations in facilitating the return of people to their homes and their reintegration into their communities”. 
22nd International Conference of the Red Cross, Teheran, 8–15 November 1973, Res. III.
International Conference on Central American Refugees
The Concerted Plan of Action adopted at the International Conference on Central American Refugees in 1989 stressed the necessity of according humanitarian treatment to internally and externally displaced persons, which presumed, in principle, facilitating the return to their homes and the reconstruction of their communities. 
International Conference on Central American Refugees (CIREFCA), Guatemala City, 29–31 May 1989, Declaration and Concerted Plan of Action, UN Doc. CIREFCA/89/14, 31 May 1989, § I(28–30).
Inter-Parliamentary Conference (1992)
In a resolution adopted in 1992 on support to the recent international initiatives to halt the violence and put an end to the violations of human rights in Bosnia and Herzegovina, the 88th Inter-Parliamentary Conference called on parties “to ensure conditions for the safe return to their homes of all refugees and displaced persons”. 
88th Inter-Parliamentary Conference, Stockholm, Resolution on support to the recent international initiatives to halt the violence and put an end to the violations of human rights in Bosnia and Herzegovina, 12 September 1992, § 3.
Inter-Parliamentary Conference (1993)
In a resolution adopted in 1993 on the need for urgent action in the former Yugoslavia, particularly as regards the protection of minorities and the prevention of further loss of life in order that peaceful co-existence and respect for human rights can be restored for all peoples, the 89th Inter-Parliamentary Conference urged “the creation of the necessary conditions for the safe repatriation of all displaced civilians and refugees to their homes as soon as possible”. 
89th Inter-Parliamentary Conference, New Delhi, Resolution on the need for urgent action in the former Yugoslavia, particularly as regards the protection of minorities and the prevention of further loss of life in order that peaceful co-existence and respect for human rights can be restored for all peoples, 17 April 1993, § 11.
Peace Implementation Conference for Bosnia and Herzegovina
The Chairman’s Conclusions of the Florence Peace Implementation Conference for Bosnia and Herzegovina in 1996 reiterated the importance of the “free and safe return” of IDPs and refugees and laid out detailed provisions designed to facilitate such return. 
Peace Implementation Conference for Bosnia and Herzegovina, Florence, 13–14 June 1996, Chairman’s Conclusions, annexed to Letter dated 9 July 1996 from the UN Secretary-General to the President of the UN Security Council, UN Doc. S/1996/542, 10 July 1996, Appendix I, §§ 11–15.
International Conference of the Red Cross and Red Crescent (1999)
The Plan of Action for the years 2000–2003 adopted in 1999 by the 27th International Conference of the Red Cross and Red Crescent proposed that all the parties to an armed conflict take effective measures to ensure that displaced persons “are able to return voluntarily, in peaceful conditions and in safety to their homes or to resettle voluntarily elsewhere”. 
27th International Conference of the Red Cross and Red Crescent, Geneva, 31 October–6 November 1999, Res. I, Annex 2, Plan of Action for the years 2000–2003, Actions proposed for final goal 1.1, § 1(c).
Human Rights Committee
In 1995, in its consideration of the report of the Russian Federation, the Human Rights Committee stated:
41. The Committee urges that “appropriate and effective measures be adopted to enable all persons displaced as a consequence of the events that occurred in North Ossetia in 1992 to return to their homeland.
45. The Committee urges that adequate measures be adopted to alleviate the conditions of all displaced persons following the fighting in Chechnya, including measures aimed at facilitating their return to their towns and villages. 
Human Rights Committee, Consideration of the report of the Russian Federation, UN Doc. CCPR/C/79/Add.54, 26 July 1995, §§ 41 and 45.
Human Rights Committee
In 2006, in its concluding observations on the report submitted by the United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo on the human rights situation in Kosovo since June 1999, the Human Rights Committee stated:
The Committee is concerned about the very low number of minority returns and the inability of displaced persons to recover their real property, including agricultural lands (art. 12 [of the 1966 International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights]).
UNMIK [United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo], in cooperation with PISG [Provisional Institutions of Self-Government], should intensify efforts to ensure safe conditions for sustainable returns of displaced persons, in particular those belonging to minorities. In particular, it should ensure that they may recover their property, receive compensation for damage done and benefit from rental schemes for property temporarily administered by the Kosovo Property Agency. 
Human Rights Committee, Concluding observations on the report submitted by the United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo on the human rights situation in Kosovo since June 1999, UN Doc. CCPR/C/UNK/CO/1, 14 August 2006, § 18.
[emphasis in original]
Human Rights Committee
In its concluding observations on the initial report of Bosnia and Herzegovina in 2006, the Human Rights Committee stated:
The Committee notes with concern that, despite the return of housing units to their pre-armed conflict owners and the allocation of significant funds to the reconstruction of demolished housing units, many refugees and internally displaced persons (IDPs) have still not returned to their pre-armed conflict places of residence or have left again after having returned there. (art. 12 [of the 1966 International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights])
The State party should increase its efforts to create the necessary conditions for sustainable returns, i.e. by combating discrimination against minority returnees, ensuring the social re-integration of returnees and their equal access to employment, education, and social and public services, such as water and electricity, and by further de-mining areas with significant returnee populations. 
Human Rights Committee, Concluding observations on the initial report of Bosnia and Herzegovina, UN Doc. CCPR/C/BIH/CO/1, 22 November 2006, § 20.
[emphasis in original]
Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination
In 1994, in its concluding observations on the report of the Sudan, CERD recommended that “concrete steps be taken to encourage the voluntary return of all refugees and persons displaced in the conflict”. 
CERD, Concluding observations on the report of the Sudan, UN Doc. A/49/18, 19 September 1994, p. 72, § 476.
No data.
Front for the Restoration of Unity and Democracy
The 1994 Agreement on Peace and National Reconciliation, concluded by the Front for the Restoration of Unity and Democracy (Front pour la Restauration de l’Unité et de la Démocratie – FRUD) with the Government of Djibouti, provides:
The FRUD shall encourage the return of refugees and displaced persons from abroad.
They (FRUD) shall provide the government with a list of the individuals concerned, so that the State can provide them with aid and assistance. 
Djibouti, Agreement on Peace and National Reconciliation concluded between the government of Djibouti and the Front for the Restoration of Unity and Democracy (Front pour la Restauration de l’Unité et de la Démocratie – FRUD), 26 December 1994, Title III.
Sudan People’s Liberation Movement/Army (SPLM/A)
The Report on SPLM/A Practice notes that the SPLM/A supported an appeal by the House of Bishops of the Sudan in February 1998, which called upon donors, NGOs and other international organizations “to assist in the repatriation of 14,000 displaced citizens of Bor who are desperately waiting to go home”. 
Report on SPLM/A Practice, 1998, Chapter 5.5, referring to Appeal for repatriation of Bor displaced people by the House of Bishops meeting in Nairobi, 6 February 1998.
DRC Pledge of Commitment
In 2008, the armed groups party to the DRC Pledge of Commitment, “deeply deploring the insecurity that has prevailed for a long time in the province of North Kivu, causing massive displacements of populations and enormous suffering of civilians as well as massive violations of human rights”, undertook to strictly observe rules of international humanitarian law and human rights law, notably:
[to ensure] the return of refugees to the country, under supervision of the tripartite UNHCR-Government of the DRC [Democratic Republic of the Congo] and Governments of the countries of asylum (Burundi, Uganda, Rwanda and Tanzania) according to a calendar adopted by the Technical Humanitarian and Social Commission;
[to] establish a Commission charged with supervising the return of internally displaced persons and their resettlement in their places of origin in collaboration with the United Nations and other humanitarian organisations. 
Acte d’engagement signé par le CNDPMouvement Politico-Militaire, la PARECO/FAP, les Mai-Mai Kasindien, les Mai-Mai Kifuafua, les Mai-Mai Vurondo, les Mai-Mai Mongol, l’UJPS, les Mai-Mai Rwenzori et le Simba avec l’engagement solennel des Représentants de la Communauté Internationale, facilitateurs du présent acte d’engagement – les Nations-Unies, la Conférence Internationale sur la Région des Grands Lacs, les Etats-Unis d’Amérique, l’Union Africaine, l’Union Européenne et le Gouvernement (Pledge of Commitment signed by the CNDP, Mouvement Politico-Militaire, PARECO/FAP, Mai-Mai Kasindien, Mai-Mai Kifuafua, Mai-Mai Vurondo, Mai-Mai Mongol, UJPS, Mai-Mai Rwenzori and Simba with the solemn commitment of the representatives of the international community, facilitators of this pledge of commitment – the United Nations, the International Conference on the Great Lakes Region, the United States of America, the European Union and the Government), Goma, 23 January 2008, Preamble and Article III, §§ 1–5.