Practice Relating to Rule 152. Command Responsibility for Orders to Commit War Crimes
Chad’s Instructor’s Manual (2006) states that a commander is criminally liable if he “orders his subordinates to commit the violation even if he does not actually take part himself”.
Chad’s Emblem Law (2014) states:
Any person who, intentionally, in time of war, commits or gives the order to commit acts resulting in the death of or causing serious harm to the body or health of an adversary by making perfidious use of the emblem of the red cross or red crescent or a distinctive signal, commits a war crime and is punished by forced labour.
Perfidious use means to improperly use the distinctive emblem of the red cross, red crescent or other protective signs recognized by international humanitarian law, or improperly using the badge of a parlementaire, the flag or military insignia and uniform of the enemy, or of the United Nations, and by doing so, to cause the loss of human lives or serious injuries.