Practice Relating to Rule 61. Improper Use of Other Internationally Recognized Emblems
Sweden’s IHL Manual (1991) considers that the “prohibition of improper use of recognized emblems”, as contained in Article 38 of the 1977 Additional Protocol I, is part of customary international law.
Under Sweden’s Emblems and Signs Act (1953), as amended in 1994, “the international distinctive sign of civil defence … may not be used without the permission of the Government or a competent agency authorised by the Government”.
Under Sweden’s Penal Code (1962), as amended in 1998, misuse of the insignia referred to in the Emblems and Signs Act as amended, including the sign of civil defence, and misuse of “other internationally recognized insignia” are crimes against international law.