Norma relacionada
Nigeria
Practice Relating to Rule 65. Perfidy
Nigeria’s Military Manual (1994) states:
A commander in his desire to fulfil his mission shall not mask his intentions and action from the enemy so as to induce the enemy to react in a manner prejudicial to his interests. Thus, to be consistent with the law of war, deceptions shall follow the distinction between permitted ruses and prohibited perjury [perfidy]. 
Nigeria, International Humanitarian Law (IHL), Directorate of Legal Services, Nigerian Army, 1994, p. 42.
Nigeria’s Manual on the Laws of War provides that stratagems and ruses of war “are permissible provided they do not involve treachery”. 
Nigeria, The Laws of War, by Lt. Col. L. Ode PSC, Nigerian Army, Lagos, undated, § 14.
Under Nigeria’s Military Manual (1994), it is forbidden “to kill or wound treacherously individuals belonging to the hostile nation’s army”. 
Nigeria, International Humanitarian Law (IHL), Directorate of Legal Services, Nigerian Army, 1994, p. 39, § 5(l)(ii).
Under Nigeria’s Soldiers’ Code of Conduct it is forbidden “to kill or wound treacherously individuals belonging to the hostile nation or army”. 
Nigeria, Code of Conduct for Combatants, “The Soldier’s Rules”, Nigerian Army, undated, § 12(b).
Nigeria’s Military Manual (1994) gives the following example of “perjury” (perfidy): “feigning incapacitation by wounds or sickness”. 
Nigeria, International Humanitarian Law (IHL), Directorate of Legal Services, Nigerian Army, 1994, pp. 42 and 43, § 12(c).
Nigeria’s Military Manual (1994) gives the following example of “perjury” (perfidy): “feigning surrender”. 
Nigeria, International Humanitarian Law (IHL), Directorate of Legal Services, Nigerian Army, 1994, pp. 42 and 43, § 12(b).
Nigeria’s Manual on the Laws of War considers that “feigning submission for the purpose of misleading the enemy” is an “illegitimate tactic”. 
Nigeria, The Laws of War, by Lt. Col. L. Ode PSC, Nigerian Army, Lagos, undated, § 14.
It adds that “treacherous request for quarter” constitutes a war crime. 
Nigeria, The Laws of War, by Lt. Col. L. Ode PSC, Nigerian Army, Lagos, undated, § 6.
Nigeria’s Military Manual (1994) gives the following example of “perjury” (perfidy): “Feigning an intent to negotiate under a flag of truce.” 
Nigeria, International Humanitarian Law (IHL), Directorate of Legal Services, Nigerian Army, 1994, pp. 42 and 43, § 12(a).
Nigeria’s Manual on the Laws of War states: “It is forbidden to deceive the enemy by hoisting a white flag and have the enemy believe that a parlementaire is approaching them and thereby concealing an advance for attack.” 
Nigeria, The Laws of War, by Lt. Col. L. Ode PSC, Nigerian Army, Lagos, undated, § 24.
Nigeria’s Military Manual (1994) gives the following example of “perjury” (perfidy): “Making improper use of the emblem of the Red Cross or red crescent.” 
Nigeria, International Humanitarian Law (IHL), Directorate of Legal Services, Nigerian Army, 1994, pp. 42 and 43, § 12(f).
Nigeria’s Military Manual (1994) gives the following example of “perjury” (perfidy): “feigning protection status by the use of signs, emblems or uniforms of the UN”. 
Nigeria, International Humanitarian Law (IHL), Directorate of Legal Services, Nigerian Army, 1994, pp. 42 and 43, § 12(e).
Nigeria’s Military Manual (1994) gives the following example of “perjury” (perfidy): “feigning civilian or non-combatant status”. 
Nigeria, International Humanitarian Law (IHL), Directorate of Legal Services, Nigerian Army, 1994, pp. 42 and 43, § 12(d).
Nigeria’s Manual on the Laws of War states that the “use of civilian clothing … by troops engaged in a battle” is a war crime. 
Nigeria, The Laws of War, by Lt. Col. L. Ode PSC, Nigerian Army, Lagos, undated, § 6.
In the Nwaoga case before the Supreme Court of Nigeria in 1972, the appellant and two officers of the rebel Biafran army disguised in civilian clothes went to a town under the control of federal troops and killed an unarmed person. The appellant was convicted for murder. The Court held that rebels must not feign civilian status while engaging in military operations and that, in these circumstances (operation in disguise, not in the rebel army uniform but in plain clothes, thus appearing to be members of the peaceful private population), the appellant was liable to punishment under the Criminal Code since the “deliberate and intentional killing of an unarmed person living peacefully inside the Federal territory … is a crime against humanity, and even if committed during a civil war is in violation of the domestic law of the country, and must be punished”. 
Nigeria, Supreme Court, Nwaoga case, Judgment, 3 March 1972.
Nigeria’s Military Manual (1994) gives the following example of “perjury” (perfidy): “feigning protection status by the use of signs, emblems or uniforms … of a neutral [state] or state not being a party to the conflict”. 
Nigeria, International Humanitarian Law (IHL), Directorate of Legal Services, Nigerian Army, 1994, pp. 42 and 43, § 12(e).