Practice Relating to Rule 61. Improper Use of Other Internationally Recognized Emblems
Under Italy’s IHL Manual (1991), misuse of the distinctive signs of civil defence, cultural property and installations containing dangerous forces is prohibited.
The manual also states that grave breaches of international conventions and protocols, including “the improper … use of international protective signs”, are considered war crimes.
Italy’s Wartime Military Penal Code (1941) punishes anyone who “uses improperly … the international distinctive signs of protection”.