United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
Practice Relating to Rule 65. Perfidy
Section I. Simulation of civilian status
The UK Military Manual (1958) describes as treacherous the use of false assurances followed by firing, noting that this “device is often accompanied by the use of enemy uniforms or civilian clothing”.
Furthermore, the manual states: “In addition to the ‘grave breaches’ of the 1949 [Geneva] Conventions, … the following are examples of punishable violations of the laws of war, or war crimes: … use of civilian clothing … by troops engaged in battle.”
The UK LOAC Pamphlet (1981) states that the “feigning of non-combatant status” is an example of treachery.
According to the UK LOAC Manual (2004), “the feigning of civilian, non-combatant status” is an example of prohibited perfidy, “if done with intent to betray the enemy’s confidence”.
In its chapter on air operations, the manual states: “Military and auxiliary aircraft are prohibited at all times from feigning exempt, civilian or neutral status.”
In its chapter on maritime warfare, the manual states that launching an attack while feigning civilian status is an example of perfidy.