Practice Relating to Rule 129. The Act of Displacement
Section A. Forced displacement
Côte d’Ivoire’s Teaching Manual (2007) provides in Book I (Basic instruction):
I. Grave violations
They are enumerated by the Geneva Conventions and the Additional Protocols, as well as by the Ivorian Penal Code.
- deportation or forced transfer of populations.
In Book III, Volume 2 (Instruction of second-year trainee officers), the Teaching Manual provides:
I.3. War crimes
This is by far the breach which can take the most varied forms. It relates to the grave breaches of the 1949 Geneva Conventions, namely the following acts directed against the persons or objects protected by these acts:
- unlawful deportation or transfer … of a civilian.
Côte d’Ivoire’s Penal Code (1981), as amended in 1998, punishes
any person who, in time of war or occupation, and in violation of … international conventions, makes an attack on the physical integrity of civilian populations or on their intellectual or moral rights … [by carrying out] their displacement or their forced dispersion, their deportation.