Norma relacionada
Canada
Practice Relating to Rule 107. Spies
Section A. Definition of spies
Canada’s LOAC Manual (1999) defines espionage as “the collection of information clandestinely behind enemy lines or in the zone of operations while wearing civilian clothing or otherwise disguised or concealed. Spies are those who engage in espionage.” 
Canada, The Law of Armed Conflict at the Operational and Tactical Level, Office of the Judge Advocate General, 1999, p. 6-3, § 23.
The manual further states:
Members of the armed forces of a party to the conflict who gather or attempt to gather information while wearing the uniform of their armed forces will not be considered as engaging in espionage. 
Canada, The Law of Armed Conflict at the Operational and Tactical Level, Office of the Judge Advocate General, 1999, p. 3-4, § 33.
[emphasis in original]
Canada’s LOAC Manual (2001) states in its chapter entitled “Combatant Status”:
1. Espionage means to gather or attempt to gather information of military value through an act of false pretence or deliberately in a clandestine manner. Generally speaking, persons engaging in espionage may be attacked and if captured while doing so shall NOT have the right to the status of prisoner of war.
2. Members of the armed forces of a party to the conflict who gather or attempt to gather information while wearing the uniform of their armed forces will not be considered as engaging in espionage.
3. Members of the armed forces engaging in espionage while not in uniform may be treated as spies and lose their entitlement to PW [prisoner-of-war] status if they are captured before rejoining the armed forces to which they belong.
4. Spies who are not in uniform are not lawful combatants. If they engage in hostilities, they may be punished for doing so but only after a fair trial affording all judicial guarantees. 
Canada, The Law of Armed Conflict at the Operational and Tactical Levels, Office of the Judge Advocate General, 13 August 2001, § 320.
[emphasis in original]
In its chapter on land warfare, the manual further states:
Espionage is the collection of information clandestinely behind enemy lines or in the zone of operations while wearing civilian clothing or otherwise disguised or concealed. Spies are those who engage in espionage. 
Canada, The Law of Armed Conflict at the Operational and Tactical Levels, Office of the Judge Advocate General, 13 August 2001, § 611.1.