Yugoslavia, Socialist Federal Republic of
Practice Relating to Rule 61. Improper Use of Other Internationally Recognized Emblems
The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia’s Military Manual (1988) provides that “it is forbidden to use, during combat, in order to mislead the enemy, … internationally recognized signs”, inter alia
, the sign of protected cultural property.
Under the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia’s Penal Code (1976), as amended in 2001, “those who misuse or carry without permission … recognized international emblems which are used to mark certain objects in order to protect them from military operations” commit a war crime.
The commentary on the Code states: “The misuse of international emblems is committed, as a rule, during a war or an armed conflict … The aggravated form of this criminal act … exists when the misuse or unauthorized use of international emblems is committed in the war operations zone.”