Yugoslavia, Socialist Federal Republic of
Practice Relating to Rule 59. Improper Use of the Distinctive Emblems of the Geneva Conventions
The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia’s Military Manual (1988) provides that “it is forbidden to use, during combat, in order to mislead the enemy, … internationally recognized signs”, including the red cross emblem.
The manual adds that “its misuse is a criminal act”.
Under the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia’s Penal Code (1976), as amended in 2001, “those who misuse or carry without permission … the Red Cross flag or corresponding emblems” commit a war crime.
The commentary on the Code states:
The unauthorized carrying of an international emblem exists, for example, when a Red Cross emblem is carried by a person who is not a member of the medical corps (members of combat units) or, when such an emblem is placed, in general, on persons or objects not provided by international law regulations …
The misuse of international emblem is committed, as a rule, during a war or an armed conflict …
The aggravated form of this criminal act … exists when the misuse or unauthorized use of international emblems is committed in the war operations zone.