Practice Relating to Rule 110. Treatment and Care of the Wounded, Sick and Shipwrecked

Note: For practice concerning humane treatment of the wounded and sick, see Rule 87, Section C. For practice concerning the provision of basic necessities to persons deprived of their liberty, including medical care, see Rule 118.
Geneva Convention (1864)
Article 6 of the 1864 Geneva Convention provides: “Wounded or sick combatants, to whatever nation they may belong, shall be … cared for.” 
Convention for the Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded in Armies in the Field, Geneva, 22 August 1864, Article 6.
Geneva Conventions (1949)
Common Article 3 of the 1949 Geneva Conventions provides: “The wounded and sick shall be … cared for.” 
Convention (I) for the Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded and Sick in Armed Forces in the Field, Geneva, 12 August 1949, Article 3; Convention (II) for the Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded, Sick and Shipwrecked Members of Armed Forces at Sea, Geneva, 12 August 1949, Article 3; Convention (III) relative to the Treatment of Prisoners of War, Geneva, 12 August 1949, Article 3; Convention (IV) relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War, Geneva, 12 August 1949, Article 3.
(Article 3 of the 1949 Geneva Convention II adds the shipwrecked)
Geneva Convention I
Article 12, second paragraph, of the 1949 Geneva Convention I provides that members of the armed forces who are wounded or sick shall be “cared for by the Party to the conflict in whose power they may be … [T]hey shall not wilfully be left without medical assistance and care, nor shall conditions exposing them to contagion or infection be created.” 
Convention (I) for the Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded and Sick in Armed Forces in the Field, Geneva, 12 August 1949, Article 12, second para.
Geneva Convention I
Article 15, first paragraph, of the 1949 Geneva Convention I provides that “[a]t all times, and particularly after an engagement, Parties to the conflict shall, without delay, take all possible measures … to ensure … adequate care” of the wounded and sick. 
Convention (I) for the Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded and Sick in Armed Forces in the Field, Geneva, 12 August 1949, Article 15, first para.
Geneva Convention II
Article 12, second paragraph, of the 1949 Geneva Convention II provides that members of the armed forces who are wounded, sick or shipwrecked shall be “cared for by the Party to the conflict in whose power they may be … [T]hey shall not wilfully be left without medical assistance and care, nor shall conditions exposing them to contagion or infection be created”. 
Convention (II) for the Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded, Sick and Shipwrecked Members of Armed Forces at Sea, Geneva, 12 August 1949, Article 12, second para.
Geneva Convention II
Article 18, first paragraph, of the 1949 Geneva Convention II provides that “[a]fter each engagement, Parties to the conflict shall, without delay, take all possible measures … to ensure … adequate care” of the shipwrecked, wounded and sick. 
Convention (II) for the Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded, Sick and Shipwrecked Members of Armed Forces at Sea, Geneva, 12 August 1949, Article 18, first para.
Geneva Convention II
Article 21, first paragraph, of the 1949 Geneva Convention II states: “The Parties to the conflict may appeal to the charity of commanders of neutral merchant vessels, yachts or other craft, to take on board … wounded, sick or shipwrecked persons”. 
Convention (II) for the Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded, Sick and Shipwrecked Members of Armed Forces at Sea, Geneva, 12 August 1949, Article 21, first para.
Geneva Convention IV
Article 16, first paragraph, of the 1949 Geneva Convention IV provides that the wounded and sick “shall be the object of particular protection and respect”. 
Convention (IV) relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War, Geneva, 12 August 1949, Article 16, first para.
Additional Protocol I
Article 10 of the 1977 Additional Protocol I provides:
1. All the wounded, sick and shipwrecked, to whichever Party they belong, shall be respected and protected.
2. In all circumstances, they shall receive, to the fullest extent practicable and with the least possible delay, the medical care and attention required by their condition. 
Protocol Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, and relating to the Protection of Victims of International Armed Conflicts (Protocol I), Geneva, 8 June 1977, Article 10. Article 10 was adopted by consensus. CDDH, Official Records, Vol. VI, CDDH/SR.37, 24 May 1977, p. 69.
Additional Protocol II
Article 7 of the 1977 Additional Protocol II provides:
1. All the wounded, sick and shipwrecked, whether or not they have taken part in the armed conflict, shall be respected and protected.
2. In all circumstances they shall be treated humanely and shall receive, to the fullest extent practicable and with the least possible delay, the medical care and attention required by their condition. 
Protocol Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, and relating to the Protection of Victims of Non-International Armed Conflicts (Protocol II), Geneva, 8 June 1977, Article 7. Article 7 was adopted by consensus. CDDH, Official Records, Vol. VII, CDDH/SR.51, 3 June 1977, p. 109.
Additional Protocol II
Article 8 of the 1977 Additional Protocol II provides that “[w]henever circumstances permit, and particularly after an engagement, all possible measures shall be taken, without delay … to ensure … adequate care” of the wounded and sick. 
Protocol Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, and relating to the Protection of Victims of Non-International Armed Conflicts (Protocol II), Geneva, 8 June 1977, Article 8. Article 8 was adopted by consensus. CDDH, Official Records, Vol. VII, CDDH/SR.51, 3 June 1977, p. 110.
Additional Protocol II
Article 18(1) of the 1977 Additional Protocol II provides: “The civilian population may, even on its own initiative, offer to … care for the wounded, sick and shipwrecked.” 
Protocol Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, and relating to the Protection of Victims of Non-International Armed Conflicts (Protocol II), Geneva, 8 June 1977, Article 18(1). Article 18 was adopted by consensus. CDDH, Official Records, Vol. VII, CDDH/SR.53, 6 June 1977, p. 150.
NATO Standardization Agreement 2067
Article 7(b)(2) of the 1987 NATO Standardization Agreement 2067 provides: “Stragglers requiring medical care should be treated.” 
Standardization Agreement 2067, Edition 5, Control and Return of Stragglers, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Military Agency for Standardization, Brussels, 10 June 1987, Article 7(b)(2).
Lieber Code
Article 79 of the 1863 Lieber Code provides: “Every captured wounded enemy shall be medically treated, according to the ability of the medical staff.” 
Instructions for the Government of Armies of the United States in the Field, prepared by Francis Lieber, promulgated as General Order No. 100 by President Abraham Lincoln, Washington D.C., 24 April 1863, Article 79.
Oxford Manual
Article 10 of the 1880 Oxford Manual provides: “Wounded or sick soldiers shall be brought in and cared for”. 
The Laws of War on Land, adopted by the Institute of International Law, Oxford, 9 September 1880, Article 10.
Code of Conduct for Law Enforcement Officials
Article 6 of the 1979 Code of Conduct for Law Enforcement Officials provides: “Law enforcement officials shall ensure the full protection of the health of persons in their custody and, in particular, shall take immediate action to secure medical attention whenever required.” The commentary on the Article states:
While the medical personnel are likely to be attached to the law enforcement operation, law enforcement officials must take into account the judgement of such personnel when they recommend providing the person in custody with appropriate treatment through, or in consultation with, medical personnel from outside the law enforcement operation. 
Code of Conduct for Law Enforcement Officials, adopted by the UN General Assembly, Res. 34/169, 17 December 1979, Article 6 and commentary.
Cairo Declaration on Human Rights in Islam
Article 3(a) of the 1990 Cairo Declaration on Human Rights in Islam provides: “In the event of the use of force and in case of armed conflict … the wounded and the sick shall have the right to medical treatment.” 
Cairo Declaration on Human Rights in Islam, adopted at the 19th Session of the Islamic Conference of Foreign Ministers, Res. 49/19-P, Cairo, 5 August 1990, annexed to Letter dated 19 September 1990 from the permanent representative of Egypt to the UN addressed to the UN Secretary-General, UN Doc. A/45/421-S/21797, 20 September 1990, Article 3(a).
Hague Statement on Respect for Humanitarian Principles
In paragraphs 1 and 2 of the 1991 Hague Statement on Respect for Humanitarian Principles, the Presidents of the six republics of the former Yugoslavia undertook to apply the principle that “wounded and ill persons must be helped and protected in all circumstances”. 
Statement on Respect for Humanitarian Principles, signed by the Presidents of the Six Republics of the former Yugoslavia, The Hague, 5 November 1991, §§ 1 and 2.
Memorandum of Understanding on the Application of IHL between Croatia and the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia
Paragraph 1 of the 1991 Memorandum of Understanding on the Application of IHL between Croatia and the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia provides: “All wounded and sick on land shall be treated in accordance with the provisions of the First Geneva Convention.” 
Memorandum of Understanding on the Application of International Humanitarian Law between Croatia and the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, Geneva, 27 November 1991, § 1.
Agreement on the Application of IHL between the Parties to the Conflict in Bosnia and Herzegovina
Paragraph 2.1 of the 1992 Agreement on the Application of IHL between the Parties to the Conflict in Bosnia and Herzegovina provides that in all circumstances, the wounded, sick and shipwrecked “shall receive, to the fullest extent practicable and with the least possible delay, the medical care and attention required by their condition”. 
Agreement between Representatives of Mr. Alija Izetbegović (President of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina and President of the Party of Democratic Action), Representatives of Mr. Radovan Karadžić (President of the Serbian Democratic Party), and Representative of Mr. Miljenko Brkić (President of the Croatian Democratic Community), Geneva, 22 May 1992, § 2.1.
Comprehensive Agreement on Respect for Human Rights and IHL in the Philippines
Article 4(2) and (9) of Part IV of the 1998 Comprehensive Agreement on Respect for Human Rights and IHL in the Philippines provides: “The wounded and the sick shall be collected and cared for by the party to the armed conflict which has them in its custody or responsibility.” It also states: “Every possible measure shall be taken, without delay, … to ensure their adequate care.” 
Comprehensive Agreement on Respect for Human Rights and International Humanitarian Law between the Government of the Republic of the Philippines and the National Democratic Front of the Philippines, The Hague, 16 March 1998, Part IV, Article 4(2) and (9).
UN Secretary-General’s Bulletin
Section 9.1 of the 1999 UN Secretary-General’s Bulletin states: “Members of the armed forces and other persons in the power of the United Nations force who are wounded or sick shall … receive the medical care and attention required by their condition.” 
Observance by United Nations Forces of International Humanitarian Law, Secretary-General’s Bulletin, UN Secretariat, UN Doc. ST/SGB/1999/13, 6 August 1999, Section 9.1.
Argentina
Argentina’s Law of War Manual (1969) provides: “Appeal can be made to the civilian population for the … care of the wounded and sick”. 
Argentina, Leyes de Guerra, RC-46-1, Público, II Edición 1969, Ejército Argentino, Edición original aprobado por el Comandante en Jefe del Ejército, 9 May 1967, § 3.006.
Argentina
Argentina’s Law of War Manual (1989) refers to Article 10 of the 1977 Additional Protocol I and Article 7 of the 1977 Additional Protocol II and states:
In all circumstances, the wounded, sick and shipwrecked of either party shall be respected, protected … and shall receive, to the fullest extent practicable and with the least possible delay, appropriate medical care. 
Argentina, Leyes de Guerra, PC-08-01, Público, Edición 1989, Estado Mayor Conjunto de las Fuerzas Armadas, aprobado por Resolución No. 489/89 del Ministerio de Defensa, 23 April 1990, § 2.03.
Australia
Australia’s Commanders’ Guide (1994) provides: “Wounded, sick and shipwrecked combatants are to be afforded necessary medical care.” 
Australia, Law of Armed Conflict, Commanders’ Guide, Australian Defence Force Publication, Operations Series, ADFP 37 Supplement 1 – Interim Edition, 7 March 1994, § 622.
The manual also provides: “Civilians in enemy territory are protected persons and as such must be afforded necessary medical treatment.” 
Australia, Law of Armed Conflict, Commanders’ Guide, Australian Defence Force Publication, Operations Series, ADFP 37 Supplement 1 – Interim Edition, 7 March 1994, § 609.
Australia
Australia’s Defence Force Manual (1994) provides that “parties to a conflict must take all possible measures to … ensure … care” of the wounded, sick and shipwrecked. 
Australia, Manual on Law of Armed Conflict, Australian Defence Force Publication, Operations Series, ADFP 37 – Interim Edition, 1994, § 986.
The manual adds that wounded, sick and shipwrecked combatants shall not be “left without proper medical care and attention, or … exposed to conditions which might result in contagion or infection”. 
Australia, Manual on Law of Armed Conflict, Australian Defence Force Publication, Operations Series, ADFP 37 – Interim Edition, 1994, § 990(b)–(c).
Australia
Australia’s LOAC Manual (2006) states:
9.91 The parties to a conflict must take all possible measures to search for and collect the wounded, sick and shipwrecked … and to ensure their care.
9.95 Sick, wounded and shipwrecked combatants are to be protected and respected, treated humanely, and cared for by any detaining power without any adverse discrimination … They shall not be:
• left without proper medical care and attention, or
• exposed to conditions which might result in contagion or infection.
9.98 A party to an armed conflict if compelled to abandon wounded and sick must, so far as military considerations permit, leave medical personnel and equipment to care for those left behind. 
Australia, The Manual of the Law of Armed Conflict, Australian Defence Doctrine Publication 06.4, Australian Defence Headquarters, 11 May 2006, §§ 9.91, 9.95 and 9.98; see also § 6.68.
The LOAC Manual (2006) replaces both the Defence Force Manual (1994) and the Commanders’ Guide (1994).
Belgium
Belgium’s Law of War Manual (1983) refers to common Article 3 of the 1949 Geneva Conventions and provides that the wounded and sick shall be cared for. 
Belgium, Droit Pénal et Disciplinaire Militaire et Droit de la Guerre, Deuxième Partie, Droit de la Guerre, Ecole Royale Militaire, par J. Maes, Chargé de cours, Avocat-général près la Cour Militaire, D/1983/1187/029, 1983, p. 17.
Belgium
Belgium’s Teaching Manual for Soldiers states: “If operations so permit, the wounded must be … cared for.” 
Belgium, Droit de la Guerre, Dossier d’Instruction pour Soldat, à l’attention des officiers instructeurs, JS3, Etat-Major Général, Forces Armées belges, undated, pp. 16–17; see also p. 32.
Benin
Benin’s Military Manual (1995) provides: “The wounded and sick shall be … cared for by the party to the conflict in whose power they may be.” 
Benin, Le Droit de la Guerre, III fascicules, Forces Armées du Bénin, Ministère de la Défense nationale, 1995, Fascicule II, p. 4; see also pp. 9 and 12.
The manual instructs soldiers to “care for and protect” wounded enemy combatants. 
Benin, Le Droit de la Guerre, III fascicules, Forces Armées du Bénin, Ministère de la Défense nationale, 1995, Fascicule I, p. 16; see also Fascicule III, p. 5.
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina’s Military Instructions (1992) provides: “The wounded and sick who have ceased to resist … must be provided with medical care and assistance.” 
Bosnia and Herzegovina, Instructions on the Implementation of the International Law of War in the Armed Forces of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Official Gazette of ABiH, No. 2/92, 5 December 1992, § 14(1)
Burkina Faso
Burkina Faso’s Disciplinary Regulations (1994) provides: “Whenever circumstances permit, the wounded, sick and shipwrecked shall be … protected and cared for.” 
Burkina Faso, Règlement de Discipline Générale dans les Forces Armées, Décret No. 94-159/IPRES/DEF, Ministère de la Défense, 1994, Article 35(1).
Cameroon
Cameroon’s Disciplinary Regulations (1975) states: “When circumstances so permit, the wounded, sick and shipwrecked shall be … cared for.” 
Cameroon, Règlement de discipline dans les Forces Armées, Décret No. 75/700, 6 November 1975, Article 31.
Cameroon
Cameroon’s Instructor’s Manual (1992) states: “Wounded enemy combatants shall be cared for.” 
Cameroon, Droit international humanitaire et droit de la guerre, Manuel de l’instructeur en vigueur dans les Forces Armées, Présidence de la République, Ministère de la Défense, Etat-major des Armées, Troisième Division, Edition 1992, p. 40, § 152, p. 44, § 163(1) and p. 149, § 531(2).
Cameroon
Cameroon’s Instructor’s Manual (2006), under the heading “Rules for Conduct in Combat”, states: “Wounded enemy combatants: care for them; … turn them over to your superior or to the closest medical personnel.” 
Cameroon, Droit des conflits armés et droit international humanitaire, Manuel de l’instructeur en vigueur dans les forces de défense, Ministère de la Défense, Présidence de la République, Etat-major des Armées, 2006, p. 31; see also pp. 51, 77, 107 and 323.
The manual, under the heading “The Sick, Wounded [and] Shipwrecked”, also states:
In case the wounded have been abandoned by the enemy, the [capturing] unit in question must leave a part of its medical personnel and its medical equipment behind to continue to care for them if the tactical situation permits. In this context, the aforementioned victims must be registered. 
Cameroon, Droit des conflits armés et droit international humanitaire, Manuel de l’instructeur en vigueur dans les forces de défense, Ministère de la Défense, Présidence de la République, Etat-major des Armées, 2006, p. 122, § 403; see also p. 164, § 463.
The manual further states: “If war correspondents are wounded, sick or shipwrecked, they equally benefit from the protection granted to combatants”. 
Cameroon, Droit des conflits armés et droit international humanitaire, Manuel de l’instructeur en vigueur dans les forces de défense, Ministère de la Défense, Présidence de la République, Etat-major des Armées, 2006, p. 230, § 542.
Cameroon
Cameroon’s Disciplinary Regulations (2007) states: “Every soldier must: … collect, protect and care for the wounded, sick and shipwrecked as far as operational circumstances permit.” 
Cameroon, Règlement de discipline générale dans les forces de défense, Décret N° 2007/199, Président de la République, 7 July 2007, Article 31.
Canada
Canada’s LOAC Manual (1999) states that the 1977 Additional Protocol I “also contains provisions amplifying the obligation to care for persons protected by [the 1949 Geneva Convention I] and [the 1949 Geneva Convention II]” and that “the innovation of [the 1977 Additional Protocol I] in this area is to extend the scope of the earlier Conventions so that civilians as well as military personnel are entitled to protection”. 
Canada, The Law of Armed Conflict at the Operational and Tactical Level, Office of the Judge Advocate General, 1999, p. 9-1, § 2.
The manual also provides: “The wounded, sick and shipwrecked shall not be left without proper medical care.” 
Canada, The Law of Armed Conflict at the Operational and Tactical Level, Office of the Judge Advocate General, 1999, p. 9-1, § 18.
In the case of non-international armed conflicts, the manual states that “after an engagement and whenever circumstances permit, all possible steps must be taken without delay … to ensure … adequate care” of the wounded, sick and shipwrecked”. 
Canada, The Law of Armed Conflict at the Operational and Tactical Level, Office of the Judge Advocate General, 1999, p. 17-4, § 32.
Canada
Canada’s Code of Conduct (2001) provides: “In all circumstances [the wounded, sick and shipwrecked] shall … receive, to the fullest extent practicable and with the least possible delay, the medical care and attention required by their condition.” 
Canada, Code of Conduct for CF Personnel, Office of the Judge Advocate General, 4 June 2001, Rule 7, § 1.
Canada
Canada’s LOAC Manual (2001) states in its chapter on the treatment of the wounded, sick and shipwrecked:
902. General
2.[sic] The two major treaties in this area are the Geneva Convention for the Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded and Sick in Armed Forces in the Field (GI) and the Geneva Convention for the Amelioration of the Condition of Wounded, Sick and Shipwrecked Members of Armed Forces at Sea (GII). Additional Protocol I to the Geneva Conventions (AP I) also contains provisions amplifying the obligation to care for persons protected by GI and GII. [T]he innovation of AP I in this area is to extend the scope of the earlier Conventions so that civilians as well as military personnel are entitled to protection.
904. Collection of wounded, sick and shipwrecked
1. Following an engagement, parties to a conflict are obliged to take all possible measures to search for and collect without delay the wounded, sick and shipwrecked.
2. The parties to a conflict must protect the wounded, sick and shipwrecked from pillage and ill-treatment and ensure their adequate care …
907. Treatment of the wounded, sick and shipwrecked
1. The wounded, sick and shipwrecked are to be protected, respected, treated humanely and cared for by the Detaining Power without any adverse discrimination.
2. … They shall not be … left without proper medical care and attention or exposed to conditions, which might result in contagion or infection. The term “wounded, sick and shipwrecked”, includes civilians.
913. Obligation when compelled to abandon wounded and sick
1. In land warfare, a belligerent compelled to abandon its wounded and sick is obliged, so far as military considerations permit, to leave medical personnel and equipment to care for them. Their presence does not, however, exempt the Detaining Power from providing any additional assistance that may be necessary. 
Canada, The Law of Armed Conflict at the Operational and Tactical Levels, Office of the Judge Advocate General, 13 August 2001, §§ 902, 904, 907 and 913.1.
In its chapter on non-international armed conflicts, the manual states:
By Common Article 3, the parties to a non-international armed conflict occurring in the territory of a party to the Conventions are obliged to apply, as a minimum, the following provisions:
b. The wounded and sick shall be collected and cared for. 
Canada, The Law of Armed Conflict at the Operational and Tactical Levels, Office of the Judge Advocate General, 13 August 2001, § 1708.1.
In the same chapter, the manual further states: “After any engagement and whenever circumstances permit, all possible steps must be taken without delay to search for and collect the wounded, sick and shipwrecked … and ensure their adequate care.” 
Canada, The Law of Armed Conflict at the Operational and Tactical Levels, Office of the Judge Advocate General, 13 August 2001, § 1718.
Canada
Canada’s Code of Conduct (2005) provides:
All the wounded and sick, whether friend or foe, shall be respected and protected. In all circumstances they shall be treated humanely and shall receive, to the fullest extent practicable and with the least possible delay, the medical care and attention required by their condition. There shall be no distinction among them based on any grounds other than medical ones. 
Canada, Code of Conduct for CF Personnel, Office of the Judge Advocate General, 2005, Rule 7, § 1.
Central African Republic
The Central African Republic’s Instructor’s Manual (1999) states in Volume 1 (Basic and team leader instruction) in the section on wounded enemy combatants: “Soldiers must: … care for and protect them”. 
Central African Republic, Le Droit de la Guerre, Fascicule No. 1: Formation élémentaire toutes armés (FETA), formation commune de base (FCB), certificat d’aptitude technique No. 1 (Chef d’équipe), Ministère de la Défense, Forces Armées Centrafricaines, 1999, Chapter III, Section II; see also Le Droit de la Guerre, Fascicule No. 2: Formation pour l’obtention du certificat technique No. 2 (Chef de Groupe), du certificat Inter-Armé (CIA), du certificat d’aptitude de Chef de Patrouille (CACP), Ministère de la Défense, Forces Armées Centrafricaines, 1999, Chapter II, Section III, § 3.1, and Chapter III, Section II, § 2.1.
In Volume 2 (Instruction for group and patrol leaders), the manual states: “The wounded and sick must be … cared for by the party to the conflict which has them in its power.” 
Central African Republic, Le Droit de la Guerre, Fascicule No. 2: Formation pour l’obtention du certificat technique No. 2 (Chef de Groupe), du certificat Inter-Armé (CIA), du certificat d’aptitude de Chef de Patrouille (CACP), Ministère de la Défense, Forces Armées Centrafricaines, 1999, Chapter I, Fundamental Rules, § 3; see also Chapter III, Section II, § 2.2 and Chapter V, Section II, § 5.
Also in Volume 2, the manual states: “A military unit obliged to abandon the enemy wounded and sick must leave with them medical personnel and supplies to help care for them, insofar as the tactical situation permits.” 
Central African Republic, Le Droit de la Guerre, Fascicule No. 2: Formation pour l’obtention du certificat technique No. 2 (Chef de Groupe), du certificat Inter-Armé (CIA), du certificat d’aptitude de Chef de Patrouille (CACP), Ministère de la Défense, Forces Armées Centrafricaines, 1999, Chapter III, Section II, § 2.2.
In Volume 3 (Instruction for non-commissioned officers studying for the level 1 and 2 certificates and for future officers of the criminal police), the manual states: “The wounded, sick and shipwrecked must receive the medical care required by their state of health.” 
Central African Republic, Le Droit de la Guerre, Fascicule No. 3: Formation pour l’obtention du Brevet d’Armes No. 1, du Brevet d’Armes No. 2 et le stage d’Officier de Police Judiciaire (OPJ), Ministère de la Défense, Forces Armées Centrafricaines, 1999, Chapter I, Section II, § 2.3.
Volume 3 further states: “Precautions must be taken as soon as, and provided that, the mission permits it (… victims are … cared for in a combat area by medical personnel, etc.).” 
Central African Republic, Le Droit de la Guerre, Fascicule No. 3: Formation pour l’obtention du Brevet d’Armes No. 1, du Brevet d’Armes No. 2 et le stage d’Officier de Police Judiciaire (OPJ), Ministère de la Défense, Forces Armées Centrafricaines, 1999, Chapter II, Section II, § 2.2.
Central African Republic
The Central African Republic’s Disciplinary Regulations (2009) states: “In accordance with the international conventions signed or approved by the Central African Government, it is stipulated that during combat servicemen must: … care for the wounded, sick and shipwrecked whenever circumstances permit”. 
Central African Republic, Décret 09.411 portant règlement de discipline générale dans les Armées, Ministre de la Défense Nationale, des Anciens Combattants, des Victimes de Guerre, du Désarmement et de la Restructuration de l’Armée, 10 December 2009, Article 12(10).
Chad
Chad’s Instructor’s Manual (2006) states that, on the battlefield, and as soon as possible, “the conflicting parties shall … take care of the wounded and sick”. 
Chad, Droit international humanitaire, Manuel de l’instructeur en vigueur dans les forces armées et de sécurité, Ministère de la Défense, Présidence de la République, Etat-major des Armées, 2006, p. 63; see also p. 88.
Colombia
Colombia’s Circular on Fundamental Rules of IHL (1992) provides: “The wounded and sick shall be … cared for by the parties to the conflict.” 
Colombia, Transcripción Normas Fundamentales del Derecho Humanitario Aplicables en los Conflictos Armados, Circular No. 033/DIPL-SERPO-526, Policía Nacional, Dirección General, Santafé de Bogotá, 14 May 1992, § 3.
Colombia
Colombia’s Basic Military Manual (1995) provides that all wounded and sick combatants shall be cared for. 
Colombia, Derecho Internacional Humanitario – Manual Básico para las Personerías y las Fuerzas Armadas de Colombia, Ministerio de Defensa Nacional, 1995, p. 21.
Colombia
Colombia’s Instructors’ Manual (1999) provides: “Wounded enemy combatants must be cared for.” 
Colombia, Derechos Humanos & Derecho Internacional Humanitario – Manual de Instrucción de la Guía de Conducta para el Soldado e Infante de Marina, Ministerio de Defensa Nacional, Oficina de Derechos Humanos, Fuerzas Militares de Colombia, Santafé de Bogotá, 1999, p. 24; see also Derechos Humanos & Derecho Internacional Humanitario – Guía de Conducta para el Soldado e Infante de Marina, Ministerio de Defensa Nacional, Oficina de Derechos Humanos, Fuerzas Militares de Colombia, Santafé de Bogotá, 1999, p. 20.
Congo
The Congo’s Disciplinary Regulations (1986) states: “When circumstances so permit, the wounded, sick and shipwrecked shall be … cared for.” 
Congo, Décret No. 86/057 du 14 janvier 1986 portant Règlement du Service dans l’Armée Populaire Nationale, 1986, Article 32.
Côte d’Ivoire
Côte d’Ivoire’s Teaching Manual (2007) provides in Book I (Basic instruction):
I.1 Basic rules
[Basic Rule No. 5]:
Collect, protect and care for the wounded, shipwrecked and sick, whether they be friends, enemies or civilians.
[Observation]:
- The wounded, shipwrecked and sick enemies no longer take part in combat.
- As human beings, they are in need of assistance and protection.
I.2 Specific rules
Wounded enemy combatants
8. Disarm them:
- give first aid.
9. Hand them over to the closest medical personnel or to your superior. 
Côte d’Ivoire, Droit de la guerre, Manuel d’instruction, Livre I: Instruction de base, Ministère de la Défense, Forces Armées Nationales, November 2007, pp. 21–22 and 23–25; see also Droit de la guerre, Manuel d’instruction, Livre II: Instruction du gradé et du cadre, Manuel de l’instructeur, Ministère de la Défense, Forces Armées Nationales, November 2007, p. 16; Droit de la guerre, Manuel d’instruction, Livre III, Tome 1: Instruction de l’élève officier d’active de 1ère année, Manuel de l’élève, Ministère de la Défense, Forces Armées Nationales, November 2007, p. 39; Droit de la guerre, Manuel d’instruction, Livre IV: Instruction du chef de section et du commandant de compagnie, Manuel de l’élève, Ministère de la Défense, Forces Armées Nationales, November 2007, p. 65.
In Book III, Volume 1 (Instruction of first-year trainee officers), the Teaching Manual provides: “Prisoners of war can be sick, traumatized or wounded. In such cases, they must be evacuated and cared for by the friendly or enemy medical service at the front.” 
Côte d’Ivoire, Droit de la guerre, Manuel d’instruction, Livre III, Tome 1: Instruction de l’élève officier d’active de 1ère année, Manuel de l’élève, Ministère de la Défense, Forces Armées Nationales, November 2007, p. 46.
Croatia
Croatia’s LOAC Compendium, Commanders’ Manual (1991) and Soldiers’ Manual (1992) instruct soldiers to protect civilian boats that rescue the shipwrecked. 
Croatia, Compendium “Law of Armed Conflicts”, Republic of Croatia, Ministry of Defence, 1991, p. 45; Basic Rules of the Law of Armed Conflicts – Commanders’ Manual, Republic of Croatia, Ministry of Defence, 1992, Rules 71 and 75–76; Rules of Conduct for Soldiers, Republic of Croatia, Ministry of Defence, 1992, p. 3.
Croatia
Croatia’s Commanders’ Manual (1992) states that adequate care must be taken of the wounded and shipwrecked. 
Croatia, Basic Rules of the Law of Armed Conflicts – Commanders’ Manual, Republic of Croatia, Ministry of Defence, 1992, Rule 16.
Croatia
Croatia’s Instructions on Basic Rules of IHL (1993) requires that the wounded and sick be cared for. 
Croatia, Instructions “Basic Rules of International Humanitarian Law Applicable in Armed Conflicts”, Republic of Croatia, Ministry of Defence, 1993, Nos. 1–3.
Cuba
Cuba’s Regulation of the Internal Order of the Revolutionary Armed Forces (2002) states:
The measures that will be taken by the commander, superior or officer on duty … to preserve the place [where an extraordinary or allegedly criminal act has occurred], until the arrival of the competent personnel, are the following:
g) Organize the provision of first aid to the wounded. 
Cuba, Reglamento de Orden Interior de las Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias, 2002, Ministerio de las Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias, aprobado por Orden No. 349 del Ministro de las Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias, Havana, 30 September 2002, Article 159(g).
Djibouti
Djibouti’s Disciplinary Regulations (1982) states: “Combatants must … protect and care for the wounded, sick and shipwrecked insofar as operational circumstances permit”. 
Djibouti, Décret no. 82-028/PR/DEF du 5 mai 1982 portant règlement de la discipline générale dans les Forces armées, Article 30(2).
The Regulations also states: “Sick and wounded prisoners must be handed over to the medical service.” 
Djibouti, Décret no. 82-028/PR/DEF du 5 mai 1982 portant règlement de la discipline générale dans les Forces armées, Article 31(1).
Djibouti
Djibouti’s Manual on International Humanitarian Law (2004) states with regard to “wounded enemy combatants”: “[C]ollect them [and] … protect them.” 
Djibouti, Manuel sur le droit international humanitaire et les droits de l’homme applicables au travail du policier, Ministère de l’Intérieur, Direction Générale de la Police, 2004, p. 7.
Ecuador
Ecuador’s Naval Manual (1989) provides that wounded and sick members of the armed forces shall be cared for. 
Ecuador, Aspectos Importantes del Derecho Internacional Marítimo que Deben Tener Presente los Comandantes de los Buques, Academia de Guerra Naval, 1989, § 11.4.
El Salvador
El Salvador’s Soldiers’ Manual provides that wounded and sick persons shall be assisted and cared for in all circumstances. 
El Salvador, Manual del Combatiente, undated, p. 7.
France
France’s LOAC Summary Note (1992) provides that the “wounded, sick and shipwrecked shall be … cared for … by the Party to the conflict in whose power they may be”. 
France, Fiche de Synthèse sur les Règles Applicables dans les Conflits Armés, Note No. 432/DEF/EMA/OL.2/NP, Général de Corps d’Armée Voinot (pour l’Amiral Lanxade, Chef d’Etat-major des Armées), 1992, § 2.1.
France
France’s LOAC Teaching Note (2000) provides that the “wounded, sick and shipwrecked shall be … cared for … by the Party to the conflict in whose power they may be”. 
France, Fiche didactique relative au droit des conflits armés, Directive of the Ministry of Defence, 4 January 2000, annexed to the Directive No. 147 of the Ministry of Defence of 4 January 2000, p. 3.
France
France’s LOAC Manual (2001) provides that the “authorities are responsible for the health and physical integrity of the persons in their power. They commit war crimes if they refuse to provide them with medical care or if they deliberately place their health in danger.” 
France, Manuel de droit des conflits armés, Ministère de la Défense, Direction des Affaires Juridiques, Sous-Direction du droit international humanitaire et du droit européen, Bureau du droit des conflits armés, 2001, p. 32.
Germany
Germany’s Soldiers’ Manual (1991) provides that the wounded, sick and shipwrecked shall be cared for. 
Germany, Taschenkarte, Humanitäres Völkerrecht in bewaffneten Konflikten – Grundsätze, Bearbeitet nach ZDv 15/2, Humanitäres Völkerrecht in bewaffneten Konflikten – Handbuch, Zentrum Innere Führung, June 1991, p. 5.
Germany
Germany’s Military Manual (1992) states that the wounded, sick and shipwrecked shall be cared for. 
Germany, Humanitarian Law in Armed Conflicts – Manual, DSK VV207320067, edited by The Federal Ministry of Defence of the Federal Republic of Germany, VR II 3, August 1992, English translation of ZDv 15/2, Humanitäres Völkerrecht in bewaffneten KonfliktenHandbuch, August 1992, § 601.
The manual adds: “At all times all possible measures shall be taken to … ensure their adequate medical assistance.” 
Germany, Humanitarian Law in Armed Conflicts – Manual, DSK VV207320067, edited by The Federal Ministry of Defence of the Federal Republic of Germany, VR II 3, August 1992, English translation of ZDv 15/2, Humanitäres Völkerrecht in bewaffneten KonfliktenHandbuch, August 1992, § 605.
Germany
Germany’s Soldiers’ Manual (2006) states: “The wounded, sick and shipwrecked shall be respected and protected in all circumstances … They shall be treated humanely and cared for.” 
Germany, Druckschrift Einsatz Nr. 03, Humanitäres Völkerrecht in bewaffneten Konflikten – Grundsätze, Erarbeitet nach ZDv 15/2, Humanitäres Völkerrecht in bewaffneten Konflikten – Handbuch, DSK SF009320187, Bundesministerium der Verteidigung, R II 3, August 2006, p. 5.
Greece
The Hellenic Territorial Army’s Internal Service Code (1984), as amended, provides: “Members of the armed forces should … care for the wounded and sick, when circumstances allow.” 
Greece, Hellenic Territorial Army Regulation of Internal Service Code, Presidential Decree 130/1984 (Military Regulation 20-1), as amended, Article 14(c).
Guinea
Guinea’s Soldier’s Manual (2010), under the heading “Wounded enemy combatants”, states: “Care for them [and] [h]and them over to … the nearest medical personnel.” 
Guinea, Soldier’s Manual, Ministry of National Defence, 2010, pp. 7–8.
Under the heading “Rules of conduct in combat”, the manual also states: “[C]are for the wounded and sick”. 
Guinea, Soldier’s Manual, Ministry of National Defence, 2010, p. 15.
Guinea
Guinea’s Disciplinary Regulations (2012) states:
In accordance with the international agreements signed by the government of Guinea, military personnel in combat are required:
- to collect, protect and care for the wounded, sick and shipwrecked, to the extent permitted by the circumstances[.] 
Guinea, Règlement de Service dans les Forces Armées, Volume 1: Règlement de Discipline Générale (Service Regulations in the Armed Forces, Volume 1: General Discipline Regulations), 2012 edition, Ministère de la Défense Nationale, approved by Presidential Decree No. D 293/PRG/SGG/2012, 6 December 2012, Article 12(a).
Hungary
Hungary’s Military Manual (1992) makes an explicit reference to the 1949 Geneva Convention I as being the regime applicable to the wounded and sick. 
Hungary, A Hadijog, Jegyzet a Katonai, Föiskolák Hallgatói Részére, Magyar Honvédség Szolnoki Repülötiszti Föiskola, 1992, p. 86.
India
India’s Police Manual (1986) states: “Police should be ready to render First Aid to the injured and should make arrangements for the speedy transport of such injured persons to the hospital.” 
India, Police Manual for Handling Civil Disturbances, Home Ministry, Government of Maharashtra, Bombay, 1986, p. 39, Article 13(xvi).
India
India’s Army Training Note (1995) states: “On humanitarian grounds, medical help and care has to be provided to sick and wounded of even an enemy as laid down in [the] Geneva Conventions.” The manual explains that the denial of medical care is most likely to occur because of a shortage of medicine and doctors; because troops may give priority to their own wounded and sick; because wounded insurgents or terrorists may have themselves killed or injured armed forces personnel in an ambush or a raid; and because the sick and wounded may sympathize with or harbour insurgents or terrorists. The manual warns, however, that the denial of medical care may lead to allegations and charges of “(a) inhuman behaviour, (b) cruelty to fellow human beings, [or] (c) death due to the carelessness and negligence of Armed Forces personnel”. 
India, Army Training Note, Chief of Staff, Army Training Command, Ministry of Defence, Government of India, 1995, Appendix Y, § 5.
With respect to a situation where the armed forces are called upon to assist the civilian authorities, the manual states that, after firing, “immediate steps should be taken to succour the wounded rioters” and that “it is most important that the best possible arrangements for first aid, medical attention and evacuation to hospital of injured rioters are made”. 
India, Army Training Note, Chief of Staff, Army Training Command, Ministry of Defence, Government of India, 1995, p. 13, § 19(b).
Indonesia
Indonesia’s Military Manual (1982) provides that the wounded and sick must be cared for. 
Indonesia, The Basics of International Humanitarian Law, Legal Division of the Indonesian Armed Forces, 1982, §§ 36–37.
Ireland
Ireland’s Basic LOAC Guide (2005) states:
At all times, and particularly after an engagement … adequate care [must be] given [to the wounded and sick] … . Where a side is compelled to abandon wounded and sick, it must, if possible, leave some of its medical personnel and material to care for them. 
Ireland, Basic Guide to the Law of Armed Conflict, TP/TRG/01-2005, Director of Defence Forces Training, Department of Defence, July 2005, p. 6.
The manual also provides a list of “Soldiers Rules”, one of which is: “[C]are for the wounded and sick whether friend or foe.” 
Ireland, Basic Guide to the Law of Armed Conflict, TP/TRG/01-2005, Director of Defence Forces Training, Department of Defence, July 2005, p. 13.
Israel
Israel’s Manual on the Laws of War (1998) states: “It is imperative to tend to the enemy’s wounded.” 
Israel, Laws of War in the Battlefield, Manual, Military Advocate General Headquarters, Military School, 1998, p. 44.
The manual further states:
Belonging to combatant forces entitles the combatant to special rights when he steps out of the sphere of hostilities by surrendering, being taken as a prisoner of war, injury or loss of fighting ability. Such a combatant is entitled to the status of a prisoner of war, according him medical treatment. 
Israel, Laws of War in the Battlefield, Manual, Military Advocate General Headquarters, Military School, 1998, p. 46.
Israel
Israel’s Manual on the Rules of Warfare (2006) states: “A medical team has a duty to provide medical assistance to enemy casualties as well.” 
Israel, Rules of Warfare on the Battlefield, Military Advocate-General’s Corps Command, IDF School of Military Law, Second Edition, 2006, p. 24.
The manual further states: “Those wounded on the battlefield must receive medical treatment.” 
Israel, Rules of Warfare on the Battlefield, Military Advocate-General’s Corps Command, IDF School of Military Law, Second Edition, 2006, p. 49.
In addition, the manual states:
Being a member of the combatant forces entitles a combatant to special rights when he exits the theatre of war by surrendering, falling into captivity, being wounded or losing the ability to fight. Such a combatant receives the status of prisoner-of-war (POW) entitling him to medical treatment. 
Israel, Rules of Warfare on the Battlefield, Military Advocate-General’s Corps Command, IDF School of Military Law, Second Edition, 2006, p. 49.
The Manual on the Rules of Warfare (2006) is a second edition of the Manual on the Laws of War (1998).
Italy
Italy’s LOAC Elementary Rules Manual (1991) provides: “Wounded and shipwrecked enemy combatants shall be cared for and evacuated to the rear.” 
Italy, Regole elementari di diritto di guerra, SMD-G-012, Stato Maggiore della Difesa, I Reparto, Ufficio Addestramento e Regolamenti, Rome, 1991, § 75.
Italy
Italy’s Combatant’s Manual (1998) instructs: “Collect and care for the wounded and sick.” 
Italy, Manuale del Combattente, SME 1000/A/2, Stato Maggiore Esercito/Reparto Impiego delle Forze, Ufficio Dottrina, Addestramento e Regolamenti, 1998, § 250.
Kenya
Kenya’s LOAC Manual (1997) provides that as soon as the tactical situation permits, “the wounded, sick and shipwrecked shall be cared for”. 
Kenya, Law of Armed Conflict, Military Basic Course (ORS), 4 Précis, The School of Military Police, 1997, Précis No. 3, pp. 10–11.
The manual contains the same provision with regard to captured enemy combatants. 
Kenya, Law of Armed Conflict, Military Basic Course (ORS), 4 Précis, The School of Military Police, 1997, Précis No. 2, p. 15 and Précis No. 3, p. 7.
Lebanon
Lebanon’s Teaching Manual (1997) instructs combatants to care for the wounded and shipwrecked. 
Lebanon, Manuel de l’Instruction Nationale dans l’Armée Libanaise, 1997, pp. 77–78.
Madagascar
Madagascar’s Military Manual (1994) provides that one of the seven fundamental rules of IHL is that “the wounded and sick shall be cared for by the power in whose hands they are”. It instructs soldiers: “Care for them … Hand them over to your superior … or to the nearest medical personnel.” 
Madagascar, Le Droit des Conflits Armés, Ministère des Forces Armées, August 1994, Fiche No. 4-T, § 2.2(22) and p. 91, Rule 3; see also Fiche No. 2-T, § 21.
Mali
Under Mali’s Army Regulations (1979), “refusal to … care for the wounded, sick and shipwrecked, when the circumstances so permit,” constitutes a breach of the laws and customs of war. 
Mali, Règlement du Service dans l’Armée, 1ère Partie: Discipline Générale, Ministère de la Défense Nationale, 1979, Article 36.
Mexico
Mexico’s Army and Air Force Manual (2009), in a section entitled “Basic rules of international humanitarian law applicable in armed conflicts”, states: “The wounded and sick must be … cared for by the party to the conflict which has them in its power.” 
Mexico, Manual de Derecho Internacional Humanitario para el Ejército y la Fuerza Área Mexicanos, Ministry of National Defence, June 2009, § 408.
The manual also states: “The States party to the [1949] Geneva Conventions undertake to: … assist the wounded, making no distinction between friend and foe.” 
Mexico, Manual de Derecho Internacional Humanitario para el Ejército y la Fuerza Área Mexicanos, Ministry of National Defence, June 2009, § 80(A).
In a section on the 1949 Geneva Convention I, the manual further states: “Members of the armed forces and other persons who are wounded or sick must be respected and protected in all circumstances and receive the medical attention required by their condition as promptly as possible.” 
Mexico, Manual de Derecho Internacional Humanitario para el Ejército y la Fuerza Área Mexicanos, Ministry of National Defence, June 2009, § 88.
In a section on the 1949 Geneva Convention II, the manual also states: “After each engagement, parties to the conflict must take all possible measures to search for and collect the shipwrecked, wounded and sick, … and ensure their adequate care.” 
Mexico, Manual de Derecho Internacional Humanitario para el Ejército y la Fuerza Área Mexicanos, Ministry of National Defence, June 2009, § 118.
In a section on the 1949 Geneva Convention II, the manual further states regarding the wounded, sick and shipwrecked: “After each engagement, parties to the conflict must … ensure their adequate care.” 
Mexico, Manual de Derecho Internacional Humanitario para el Ejército y la Fuerza Área Mexicanos, Ministry of National Defence, June 2009, § 118.
The manual also states that Article 3(2) common to the 1949 Geneva Conventions provides that “the wounded and sick must be … cared for.” 
Mexico, Manual de Derecho Internacional Humanitario para el Ejército y la Fuerza Área Mexicanos, Ministry of National Defence, June 2009, § 85(C); see also § 107(C).
Mexico
Mexico’s IHL Guidelines (2009), in a section entitled “Basic rules of conduct in armed conflict”, states: “[C]are for the wounded, sick and shipwrecked, whether they are friend or foe.” 
Mexico, Cartilla de Derecho Internacional Humanitario, Ministry of National Defence, 2009, § 14(p).
In the same section, the manual also states: “Provide … enemy combatants who are sick with the same medical attention as is provided to your own troops.” 
Mexico, Cartilla de Derecho Internacional Humanitario, Ministry of National Defence, 2009, § 14(o).
Morocco
Morocco’s Disciplinary Regulations (1974) provides: “When circumstances so permit, the wounded, sick and shipwrecked shall be … cared for.” 
Morocco, Règlement de Discipline Général dans les Forces Armées Royales, Dahir No. 1-74-383 du 15 rejeb 1394, 5 August 1974, Article 25(4).
Netherlands
The Military Manual (1993) of the Netherlands states: “The wounded and sick may not be left without medical care and attention.” 
Netherlands, Toepassing Humanitair Oorlogsrecht, Voorschift No. 27-412/1, Koninklijke Landmacht, Ministerie van Defensie, 1993, p. VI-2.
With respect to non-international armed conflicts, the manual states: “Wounded, sick and shipwrecked shall receive medical care.” 
Netherlands, Toepassing Humanitair Oorlogsrecht, Voorschift No. 27-412/1, Koninklijke Landmacht, Ministerie van Defensie, 1993, p. XI-5.
Netherlands
The Military Handbook (1995) of the Netherlands provides: “All wounded and sick must be cared for.” 
Netherlands, Handboek Militair, Ministerie van Defensie, 1995, p. 7-37.
Netherlands
The IFOR Instructions (1995) of the Netherlands instructs soldiers to “care for [the wounded] whether friend or foe”. 
Netherlands, IFOR Instructiekaart, geweldsinstructie, First Edition, 18 December 1995, § 6.
Netherlands
The Military Manual (2005) of the Netherlands states: “The wounded and sick must, in all circumstances, be treated humanely (with human dignity) and receive, as quickly as possible, the medical care and attention appropriate to their condition”. 
Netherlands, Humanitair Oorlogsrecht: Handleiding, Voorschift No. 27-412, Koninklijke Landmacht, Militair Juridische Dienst, 2005, § 0604.
In its chapter on the protection of the civilian population, the manual states:
0821. Medical assistance to the civilian population
The parties to a conflict must provide assistance, if necessary, to civilian medical personnel in areas where civilian medical services are disrupted by hostilities. Civilian medical personnel must have access to all places where their services are essential. They may be subject to such safety measures as the relevant party to the conflict may deem necessary.
0822. For military medical units, the rule is that humanitarian medical help may be given to the civilian population if the operation, circumstances and resources permit. Such help is preferably implemented in consultation and cooperation with Red Cross and other civilian aid organizations. The starting point is that only help of primary necessity is provided to civilians who directly ask for help from a military medical unit.
0823. To remedy a life-threatening medical condition of a member of the civilian population, emergency medical help should be provided as quickly and adequately as possible, to remedy the acute threat to life. 
Netherlands, Humanitair Oorlogsrecht: Handleiding, Voorschift No. 27-412, Koninklijke Landmacht, Militair Juridische Dienst, 2005, §§ 0821–0823; see also § 0608.
In its chapter on peace operations, the manual states:
It is unclear whether the peace force is also bound to treat those who are sick and wounded as a result of the conflict between the belligerent parties. No such obligation can be inferred from the Geneva Conventions and Additional Protocols. The medical support of the peace force is primarily intended for the peace force itself. Detainees or internees of course have a right to medical help from the peace force: they are dependent upon such facilities. The same applies to persons assigned to medical evacuation zones or hospitals. Given sufficient capacity and resources, the humanitarian principle will entail the deployment of medical support if the local population is cut off from medical assistance. If there is a humanitarian operation and humanitarian relief, such assistance should not generally lead to problems: the medical support is designed for this. However, it may happen that the medical capacity and resources present are barely enough to maintain the peace force, while the local population is in acute (medical) need. The mission of the relevant peace force (or part thereof) must then be the decisive factor. If the mission of the peace force is not humanitarian relief, medical support to the local population will be less important than if it is. To add clarity, the CDS [Chief of Defence Staff] has written an instruction on this (A25) entitled “Health Care During Deployment on Peace Operations” (17 October 2000). This clearly states how far Dutch troops are obliged to provide life-saving emergency relief to the civilian population. 
Netherlands, Humanitair Oorlogsrecht: Handleiding, Voorschift No. 27-412, Koninklijke Landmacht, Militair Juridische Dienst, 2005, § 1224; see also § 1223.
New Zealand
New Zealand’s Military Manual (1992) provides: “The sick, wounded and shipwrecked members of the armed forces and others entitled to be treated as combatants … shall not be … left without proper medical care and attention; nor exposed to conditions which might result in contagion or infection.” 
New Zealand, Interim Law of Armed Conflict Manual, DM 112, New Zealand Defence Force, Headquarters, Directorate of Legal Services, Wellington, November 1992, § 1004(1).
In the case of non-international armed conflicts, the manual states that all possible steps must be taken to ensure the adequate care of the wounded, sick and shipwrecked. 
New Zealand, Interim Law of Armed Conflict Manual, DM 112, New Zealand Defence Force, Headquarters, Directorate of Legal Services, Wellington, November 1992, § 1817.
Nicaragua
Nicaragua’s Military Manual (1996) provides that in both internal and international armed conflicts, the wounded and sick shall be cared for. 
Nicaragua, Manual de Comportamiento y Proceder de las Unidades Militares y de los Miembros del Ejército de Nicaragua en Tiempo de Paz, Conflictos Armados, Situaciones Irregulares o Desastres Naturales, Ejército de Nicaragua, Estado Mayor General, Asesoría Jurídica del Nicaragua, 1996, Articles 6 and 14.
Nigeria
Nigeria’s Operational Code of Conduct (1967) states: “All wounded military and civilians will be given necessary medical attention and care.” 
Nigeria, Operational Code of Conduct for Nigerian Armed Forces, Federal Military Government of Nigeria, July 1967, § 4(k).
Nigeria
Nigeria’s Military Manual (1994) provides: “The wounded and sick shall be cared for by the party to the conflict in whose power they may be.” 
Nigeria, International Humanitarian Law (IHL), Directorate of Legal Services, Nigerian Army, 1994, p. 13, § 4.
It further states: “As soon as the tactical situation permits, necessary measures shall be taken to … care for the wounded [and] shipwrecked.” 
Nigeria, International Humanitarian Law (IHL), Directorate of Legal Services, Nigerian Army, 1994, p. 46, § 16(g); see also p. 39, § 5(f) and (h).
Nigeria
Nigeria’s Manual on the Laws of War provides that the wounded and sick who are in the power of a belligerent must be cared for and that it is prohibited to leave the wounded and sick “without assistance and care or to create conditions that could lead to epidemics or infections”. 
Nigeria, The Laws of War, by Lt. Col. L. Ode PSC, Nigerian Army, Lagos, undated, § 35.
Nigeria
Nigeria’s Soldiers’ Code of Conduct states that the wounded and shipwrecked enemies “shall be … treated or handed over to a superior or the nearest medical personnel”. 
Nigeria, Code of Conduct for Combatants, “The Soldier’s Rules”, Nigerian Army, undated, § 6.
Peru
Peru’s IHL Manual (2004) states:
A party to the conflict may be compelled to withdraw hastily and leave behind the wounded and sick. In such cases, the [1949] First Geneva Convention provides that that party should leave with them a part of its medical personnel and material to assist in their care, as far as military considerations permit. Although this rule is not absolute, as observed in the Commentary to the First Geneva Convention, it represents nonetheless a clear moral obligation. 
Peru, Manual de Derecho Internacional Humanitario para las Fuerzas Armadas, Resolución Ministerial Nº 1394-2004-DE/CCFFAA/CDIH-FFAA, Lima, 1 December 2004, § 89.
The manual also states, with respect to situations of non-international armed conflict: “The wounded and sick shall be collected and cared for.” 
Peru, Manual de Derecho Internacional Humanitario para las Fuerzas Armadas, Resolución Ministerial Nº 1394-2004-DE/CCFFAA/CDIH-FFAA, Lima, 1 December 2004, § 71.a.
Peru
Peru’s IHL and Human Rights Manual (2010) states:
A party to the conflict may be compelled to withdraw hastily and leave behind the wounded and sick. In such cases, the [1949] First Geneva Convention provides that that party should leave with them a part of its medical personnel and material to assist in their care, as far as military considerations permit. Although this rule is not absolute, as observed in the Commentary to the [First Geneva] Convention, it represents nonetheless a clear moral obligation. 
Peru, Manual de Derecho Internacional Humanitario y Derechos Humanos para las Fuerzas Armadas, Resolución Ministerial No. 049-2010/DE/VPD, Lima, 21 May 2010, § 80, p. 281.
In its Glossary of Terms, the manual also states: “The wounded and shipwrecked must be cared for as required by their state of health.” 
Peru, Manual de Derecho Internacional Humanitario y Derechos Humanos para las Fuerzas Armadas, Resolución Ministerial No. 049-2010/DE/VPD, Lima, 21 May 2010, p. 419.
The manual also states with respect to situations of non-international armed conflict: “The wounded and sick shall be … cared for.” 
Peru, Manual de Derecho Internacional Humanitario y Derechos Humanos para las Fuerzas Armadas, Resolución Ministerial No. 049-2010/DE/VPD, Lima, 21 May 2010, § 72(b), p. 271.
Philippines
The Military Directive to Commanders (1988) of the Philippines provides:
Medical teams must be made available to provide emergency medical attention … to injured civilians caught in the crossfire …
To demonstrate AFP [Armed Forces of the Philippines] and government concern for the population, military civic action shall be undertaken immediately after the operation. This includes such immediate tasks as providing medical aid to sick and wounded civilians; procuring and distributing food and shelter to displaced persons; and, restoring vital facilities.  
Philippines, Protection and Rehabilitation of Innocent Civilians Affected by AFP Counterinsurgency Operations, Directive to Commanders of Major Services and Area Commands, Office of the Chief of Staff, General Headquarters of the Armed Forces of the Philippines, Ministry of National Defense, 15 July 1988, p. 28, Guidelines 4(d)–(e).
Philippines
The Military Instructions (1989) of the Philippines provides:
In the aftermath of military or law enforcement operations involving firefight that results in unavoidable casualties, caring for the wounded … which includes our own troops, the enemy and particularly innocent civilians must be a paramount concern of all commanders and troops at all levels. In the scene of the incident, all wounded must be treated with care and their wounds attended by providing them with first aid. 
Philippines, Safety of Innocent Civilians and Treatment of the Wounded and Dead, Directive to Commanders of Major Services and Area Commands, Office of the Chief of Staff, General Headquarters of the Armed Forces of the Philippines, Ministry of National Defence, 6 September 1989, § 4.
Philippines
The Soldier’s Rules (1989) of the Philippines requires soldiers to care for the wounded and sick. 
Philippines, Soldier’s Rules, in Handbook on Discipline, Annex C(I), General Headquarters, Armed Forces of the Philippines, Camp General Emilio Aguinaldo, Quezon City, 1989, § 5.
Philippines
The Police Rules of Engagement (1993) of the Philippines states that, after a shoot-out and “in case the suspect has been wounded and disabled, he shall be brought … to the nearest hospital for medical treatment”. 
Philippines, National Police Rules of Engagement, 1993, Section 4(f).
Philippines
The Philippine Army Soldier’s Handbook on Human Rights and International Humanitarian Law (2006) provides:
After an engagement:
3. Report the circumstances of the death or wounding of the enemies. If it is possible and the circumstances permit, report to your superiors in writing the detailed circumstances of the death or wounding of the enemy.
5. Give immediate medical attention to wounded. Under HR/IHL, it is your duty to treat wounded enemy combatants or crossfire victims. If a wounded enemy or civilian dies long after the battle or in your care, it may be used as an issue against you. Make sure that a barangay [local government] official is assisting you in bringing the wounded to the nearest hospital or clinic. 
Philippines, Philippine Army Soldier’s Handbook on Human Rights and International Humanitarian Law, A Practical Guide for Internal Security Operations, 2006, pp. 60–61, §§ 3 and 5.
Romania
Romania’s Soldiers’ Manual (1991) provides: “Wounded and sick enemy combatants shall be given first aid and brought to superiors or nearest sanitary personnel.” 
Romania, Manualul Soldatului, Ghid de comportare în luptă, Asociaţia Română de Drept Umanitar (ARDU), 1991, pp. 10–12; see also p. 32.
Russian Federation
The Russian Federation’s Regulations on the Application of IHL (2001) states:
All the wounded, sick and shipwrecked, of whatever nationality, shall receive to the fullest extent practicable and with the least possible delay, the medical care and attention required by their condition. 
Russian Federation, Regulations on the Application of International Humanitarian Law by the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation, Ministry of Defence of the Russian Federation, Moscow, 8 August 2001, § 47; see also § 4.
With regard to internal armed conflict, the Regulations states:
All the wounded, sick and shipwrecked, whether or not they have taken part in the armed conflict … shall receive to the fullest extent practicable and with the least possible delay, the medical care and attention required by their condition.
Whenever circumstances permit and particularly after an engagement, all possible measures shall be taken, without delay, to search for and collect the wounded, sick and shipwrecked [and] to ensure their adequate care. 
Russian Federation, Regulations on the Application of International Humanitarian Law by the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation, Ministry of Defence of the Russian Federation, Moscow, 8 August 2001, § 82.
Rwanda
Rwanda’s Military Instructions (1987) provides that those wounded and sick during combat must be hospitalized. 
Rwanda, Cours d’organisation destiné aux commandants de compagnie, Ecole Supérieure Militaire, Kigali, 4ème édition, 1987, pp. 41–42.
Senegal
Senegal’s Disciplinary Regulations (1990) provides: “When circumstances so permit, the wounded, sick and shipwrecked shall be … cared for.” 
Senegal, Règlement de Discipline dans les Forces Armées, Décret 90-1159, 12 October 1990, Article 34(1).
Sierra Leone
Sierra Leone’s Instructor Manual (2007) states that “soldiers should … [p]rovide [the wounded and the sick] with medical care”. 
Sierra Leone, The Law of Armed Conflict. Instructor Manual for the Republic of Sierra Leone Armed Forces (RSLAF), Armed Forces Education Centre, September 2007, p. 37; see also p. 34.
South Africa
South Africa’s LOAC Manual (1996) states that the wounded and sick “shall receive, to the fullest possible extent and with the least possible delay, the medical care and attention required by their condition”. 
South Africa, Presentation on the South African Approach to International Humanitarian Law, Appendix A, Chapter 4: International Humanitarian Law (The Law of Armed Conflict), National Defence Force, 1996, § 31.
South Africa
South Africa’s Revised Civic Education Manual (2004) states: “All wounded sick and shipwrecked, to whatever party they belong, … shall receive, to the fullest extent and with the least possible delay, the medical care and attention required by their condition”. 
South Africa, Revised Civic Education Manual, South African National Defence Force, 2004, Chapter 4, § 53.
South Africa
South Africa’s LOAC Teaching Manual (2008) states:
1.2 Reasons for compliance with LOAC [law of armed conflict] and basic principles thereof.
Fundamental Norms and Values (rules)
The fundamental norms/val[u]es which underlie the LOAC are:
- The wounded and sick must be collected and cared for by the party to the conflict who has them in its power. …
1.4 Different Types of armed Conflict and those bound by LOAC
Current Op[]inio Juris on Common Article 3 [of the 1949] Geneva Conventions. This article determines that, in the case of armed conflicts not of an international character, each Party to the conflict shall be bound to apply certain minimum rules. Although originally written for situations of non-international armed conflict, the current legal opinion is that its contents are so fundamental that it is applicable in both international and non-international armed conflicts. The minimum rules contained in Common article 3 Geneva Conventions, are the following:
- The wounded and sick shall be collected and cared for. 
South Africa, Advanced Law of Armed Conflict Teaching Manual, School of Military Justice, 1 April 2008, as amended to 25 October 2013, Learning Unit 1, pp. 13, 16, 26 and 29–30.
The manual also states:
2.3 Specifically Protected Persons and Objects …
d. Wounded, sick, shipwrecked, the dead and missing.
Search for Casualties
[1949] Geneva Convention I article 15 stipulates that the Parties to the conflict must, at all times, particularly after an engagement, without delay, take all possible measures to[:]
- ensure their adequate care; …
Steps to be taken regarding Wounded and Sick. The wounded and sick must be[:]
- given first aid treatment and cared for;
General Treatment of Wounded and Sick (Geneva convention I Article 12)
- They must be humanely treated and cared for by the force into whose hands they fall.
- They shall not willfully be left without medical assistance and care.
- The Parties to the conflict may not create conditions exposing them to contagion or infection.
- Women must be treated with due consideration to their sex.
Whenever a Party to the conflict is compelled to abandon wounded or sick to the enemy, that Party must, as far as military considerations permit, leave with them a part of its medical personnel and material to assist in their care. 
South Africa, Advanced Law of Armed Conflict Teaching Manual, School of Military Justice, 1 April 2008, as amended to 25 October 2013, Learning Unit 2, pp. 72, 102 and 103–105.
Spain
Spain’s LOAC Manual (1996) provides: “As soon as the tactical situation permits, all measures shall be taken to care for the wounded and shipwrecked.” 
Spain, Orientaciones. El Derecho de los Conflictos Armados, Publicación OR7-004, 2 Tomos, aprobado por el Estado Mayor del Ejército, Division de Operaciones, 18 March 1996, Vol. I, § 5.d.2.(5).
The manual adds that enemy wounded must be brought to the commander or to the nearest medical post. 
Spain, Orientaciones. El Derecho de los Conflictos Armados, Publicación OR7-004, 2 Tomos, aprobado por el Estado Mayor del Ejército, Division de Operaciones, 18 March 1996, Vol. I, § 10.6.b.(3) and 10.6.c.
Spain
Spain’s LOAC Manual (2007) states: “As soon as the tactical situation permits, all possible measures must be taken to … assist the wounded and shipwrecked. Enemy wounded and sick must … receive the medical care and attention required by their condition”. 
Spain, Orientaciones. El Derecho de los Conflictos Armados, Tomo 1, Publicación OR7–004, (Edición Segunda), Mando de Adiestramiento y Doctrina, Dirección de Doctrina, Orgánica y Materiales, 2 November 2007, § 5.2.d.(5); see also § 10.3.e.(1).
Sweden
Sweden’s Military Manual (1976) provides that the wounded and sick, whether civilians or combatants, shall receive medical care. 
Sweden, Folkrätten – Internationella regler i krig, Blhang Svensk soldat, 1976, p. 16.
Sweden
Sweden’s IHL Manual (1991) considers that Article 10 of the 1977 Additional Protocol I on the protection of the wounded, the sick and the shipwrecked has the status of customary law. 
Sweden, International Humanitarian Law in Armed Conflict, with reference to the Swedish Total Defence System, Swedish Ministry of Defence, January 1991, Section 2.2.3, p. 18.
Switzerland
Switzerland’s Basic Military Manual (1987) provides that the wounded and sick shall be cared for and states that the refusal to provide care to the wounded is a grave breach of the 1949 Geneva Conventions. 
Switzerland, Lois et coutumes de la guerre (Extrait et commentaire), Règlement 51.7/II f, Armée Suisse, 1987, Articles 69, 70(1) and 192(1).
Switzerland
Switzerland’s Aide-Memoire on the Ten Basic Rules of the Law of Armed Conflict (2005) states: “I recover and identify wounded, sick, shipwrecked and dead persons without discrimination as soon as the combat situation allows or the superior orders such. I give First Aid and evacuate the patients according to the orders of my superior.” 
Switzerland, The Ten Basic Rules of the Law of Armed Conflict, Aide-memoire 51.007/IIIe, Swiss Army, issued based on Article 10 of the Ordinance for Organization of the Federal Department for Defence, Civil Protection and Sports dated 7 March 2003, entry into force on 1 July 2005, Rule 4.
Switzerland
Switzerland’s Regulation on Legal Bases for Conduct during an Engagement (2005) states:
In combat, the disarmament, rescue of and the provision of first aid to the wounded, sick and shipwrecked begins as soon as the situation allows. For security reasons this usually does not happen spontaneously. The superiors make the necessary arrangements. No distinction may be made between friend and enemy or between civilian and military personnel. Purely medical criteria determine the priority in medical treatment. No one may be punished for having cared for the wounded or sick. 
Switzerland, Bases légales du comportement à l’engagement (BCE), Règlement 51.007/IVf, Swiss Army, issued based on Article 10 of the Ordinance on the Organization of the Federal Department for Defence, Civil Protection and Sports of 7 March 2003, entry into force on 1 July 2005, § 174.
Tajikistan
Tajikistan’s Manual of Internal Service of the Armed Forces (2001) states: “[T]he military serviceman is obliged … in case of necessity to render medical … aid to victims.” 
Tajikistan, Manual of Internal Service of the Armed Forces of the Republic of Tajikistan, endorsed by the Decree of the Madjilsi Namoyandagon of Madjlisi Oli [Parliament] of the Republic of Tajikistan No. 273 of 4 April 2001 and promulgated by the Order of the Minister of Defence of the Republic of Tajikistan No. 3 of 2 May 2001, § 12.
Togo
Togo’s Military Manual (1996) provides: “Wounded and sick shall be cared for by the Party to the conflict in whose power they may be.” 
Togo, Le Droit de la Guerre, III fascicules, Etat-major Général des Forces Armées Togolaises, Ministère de la Défense nationale, 1996, Fascicule II, p. 4; see also pp. 8 and 12.
The manual instructs soldiers to “care for and protect” wounded enemy combatants. 
Togo, Le Droit de la Guerre, III fascicules, Etat-major Général des Forces Armées Togolaises, Ministère de la Défense nationale, 1996, Fascicule I, p. 17; see also Fascicule III, p. 5.
Uganda
Uganda’s Code of Conduct (1986) instructs soldiers to render medical treatment to members of the public who may be in the territory of the unit. 
Uganda, Code of Conduct for the National Resistance Army (NRA), Legal Notice No. 1 of 1986 (Amendment), 23 August 1986, Rule 7.
Ukraine
Ukraine’s IHL Manual (2004) states:
1.7.1. While performing their military duty, military medical personnel shall be guided by the generally recognized rules of international humanitarian law that oblige them:
- to render medical assistance during armed conflicts as necessary without any discrimination save for medical reasons;
- to comply with international humanitarian law when organizing medical support to a military unit;
- to provide medical assistance to all wounded and sick both in the area of combat and in the occupied territory …
2.5.2.1. … All wounded, sick and shipwrecked (persons who have suffered an aircraft crash) irrespective of their belonging of any party, to the fullest extent and within the shortest period of time possible, shall receive medical assistance and care adequate to the state of their health. 
Ukraine, Manual on the Application of IHL Rules, Ministry of Defence, 11 September 2004, §§ 1.7.1 and 2.5.2.1.
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
The UK Military Manual (1958) states that in international armed conflicts, “the wounded and sick must be cared for by the belligerents in whose power they are”. 
United Kingdom, The Law of War on Land being Part III of the Manual of Military Law, The War Office, HMSO, 1958, § 339.
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
The UK LOAC Pamphlet (1981) states that “combatants are required to … ensure … adequate care” of the shipwrecked, wounded and sick. 
United Kingdom, The Law of Armed Conflict, D/DAT/13/35/66, Army Code 71130 (Revised 1981), Ministry of Defence, prepared under the Direction of The Chief of the General Staff, 1981, Section 7, p. 26, § 2.
The Pamphlet restates the provisions of common Article 3 of the 1949 Geneva Conventions and specifies that, in the case of non-international armed conflicts, the wounded and sick shall be cared for. 
United Kingdom, The Law of Armed Conflict, D/DAT/13/35/66, Army Code 71130 (Revised 1981), Ministry of Defence, prepared under the Direction of The Chief of the General Staff, 1981, Section 12, p. 42, § 2.
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
The UK LOAC Manual (2004) states:
7.3. The wounded and sick are to be protected and respected. They may not be attacked. They must be treated humanely. They must be provided with medical care. They may not wilfully be left without medical assistance nor exposed to contagious diseases or infection. …
7.3.1. … The duty of protection imposes positive duties to assist them. The Geneva Conventions and Additional Protocol I do not seek the unattainable by what would be a vain attempt at removing all hardships arising from armed conflict affecting the groups of persons defined above; they merely seek to ameliorate their conditions. …
7.3.2. Paragraph 7.3 applies to all wounded and sick, whether United Kingdom, allied or enemy, military or civilian. They are entitled to respect and protection, humane treatment and, to the fullest extent practicable and with the least possible delay, the medical care and attention required by their condition. It is forbidden, for example, to give the treatment of United Kingdom and allied wounded priority over the treatment of wounded enemy personnel. The only distinction which is permitted in dealing with the wounded or sick is that founded on real medical need. There is no absolute obligation on the part of the military medical services to accept civilian wounded and sick – that is to be done only so far as it is practicable to do so. For example, the commander of a field hospital placed to deal with casualties from an impending battle would be entitled to refer non-urgent cases elsewhere, even if the hospital had the capacity to treat them at the time. Once the treatment of a civilian patient has commenced, however, discrimination against him on other than medical grounds is not permissible.
7.7. A party to a conflict compelled to abandon wounded or sick to his adversary, must, so far as military considerations permit, leave with them a part of his medical personnel and equipment to help in caring for them. Their presence does not, however, exempt the detaining power from providing any additional assistance that may be necessary.
7.9. The wounded and sick, as well as medical personnel and chaplains, may in no circumstances renounce in whole or in part, the rights secured to them by the Convention or by Additional Protocol I. 
United Kingdom, The Manual of the Law of Armed Conflict, Ministry of Defence, 1 July 2004, §§ 7.3–7.3.2, 7.7 and 7.9.
In its chapter on internal armed conflict, the manual states: “The wounded, sick and shipwrecked must be … given the medical treatment they need without discrimination for non-medical reasons.” 
United Kingdom, The Manual of the Law of Armed Conflict, Ministry of Defence, 1 July 2004, § 15.29.1.
United States of America
The US Field Manual (1956) provides that the “wounded and sick shall be cared for by the party to the conflict in whose power they may be” and that “they shall not wilfully be left without medical assistance and care, nor shall conditions exposing them to contagion or infection be created”. 
United States, Field Manual 27-10, The Law of Land Warfare, US Department of the Army, 18 July 1956, as modified by Change No. 1, 15 July 1976, § 215.
The manual reproduces Articles 15 and 18 of the 1949 Geneva Convention I. 
United States, Field Manual 27-10, The Law of Land Warfare, US Department of the Army, 18 July 1956, as modified by Change No. 1, 15 July 1976, §§ 216 and 219.
United States of America
The US Air Force Pamphlet (1976) reproduces Article 12 of the 1949 Geneva Convention I. 
United States, Air Force Pamphlet 110-31, International Law – The Conduct of Armed Conflict and Air Operations, US Department of the Air Force, 1976, § 12-2(a).
United States of America
The US Instructor’s Guide (1985) reproduces Article 12 of the 1949 Geneva Convention I. 
United States, Instructor’s Guide – The Law of War, Headquarters Department of the Army, Washington, April 1985, p. 8.
United States of America
The US Naval Handbook (1995) provides that parties shall take all possible measures to ensure the care of the wounded, sick and shipwrecked. 
United States, The Commander’s Handbook on the Law of Naval Operations, NWP 1-14M/MCWP 5-2.1/COMDTPUB P5800.7, issued by the Department of the Navy, Office of the Chief of Naval Operations and Headquarters, US Marine Corps, and Department of Transportation, US Coast Guard, October 1995 (formerly NWP 9 (Rev. A)/FMFM 1-10, October 1989), § 11.4.
United States of America
The US Naval Handbook (2007) states:
Combatants who have been rendered incapable of combat (hors de combat) by wounds, sickness, shipwreck … are entitled to special protections including assistance and medical attention if necessary. Parties to the conflict must … take all possible measures to … protect them from harm and ensure their care. 
United States, The Commander’s Handbook on the Law of Naval Operations, NWP 1-14M/MCWP 5-12.1/COMDTPUB P5800.7, issued by the Department of the Navy, Office of the Chief of Naval Operations and Headquarters, US Marine Corps, and Department of Homeland Security, US Coast Guard, July 2007, § 11.6.
United States of America
The US Manual on Detainee Operations (2008) states:
Legal Considerations
a. As a subset of military operations, detainee operations must comply with the law of war during all armed conflicts, however such conflicts are characterized, and in all other military operations …
c. The four Geneva Conventions of 1949 are fully applicable as a matter of international law to all military operations that qualify as international armed conflicts … The principles reflected in these treaties are considered customary international law, binding on all nations during international armed conflict. Although often referred to collectively as the “Geneva Conventions,” the specific treaties are:
(1) [1949] Geneva Convention [I] … This convention provides protection for members of the armed forces and other persons on the battlefield who are no longer actively participating in hostilities as the result of becoming wounded or sick. It also regulates the conduct and treatment of medical and medical support personnel. It requires humane treatment for wounded and sick personnel who fall into enemy hands, with an express requirement that such individuals be … provided necessary and adequate care. 
United States, Manual on Detainee Operations, Joint Chiefs of Staff, 30 May 2008, pp. I-2–I-3.
The manual further states:
DODD 2310.01E [Department of Defense Directive, The Department of Defense Detainee Program] requires that all DOD [Department of Defense] personnel and contractors will apply, without regard to a detainee’s legal status, at a minimum, the standards articulated in Common Article 3 to the Geneva Conventions of 1949 …
Article 3 Common to the Geneva Convention of 1949
In the case of armed conflict not of an international character occurring in the territory of one of the High Contracting Parties, each Party to the conflict shall be bound to apply, as a minimum, the following provisions:
(1) Persons taking no active part in the hostilities … shall in all circumstances be treated humanely …
To this end, the following acts are and shall remain prohibited at any time and in any place whatsoever with respect to the above-mentioned persons:
(2) The wounded and sick shall be … cared for. 
United States, Manual on Detainee Operations, Joint Chiefs of Staff, 30 May 2008, pp. III-11–III-12.
Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe’s Code of Conduct for Combatants (1993), under the heading “Wounded enemies in the field”, states: “Care for them [and] [h]and them over to … the nearest medical personnel.” 
Zimbabwe, Code of Conduct for Combatants, Joint publication of the Zimbabwe Defence Forces and the International Committee of the Red Cross Regional Delegation in Harare, 1993, p. 4.
Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan’s Law concerning the Protection of Civilian Persons and the Rights of Prisoners of War (1995) provides that, in both international and non-international armed conflicts,
the Armed Forces of the Azerbaijan Republic and appropriate authorities and governmental bodies shall ensure [in all circumstances and with the least possible delay] medical assistance and care needed for the wounded and sick. 
Azerbaijan, Law concerning the Protection of Civilian Persons and the Rights of Prisoners of War, 1995, Article 25.
Bangladesh
Bangladesh’s International Crimes (Tribunal) Act (1973) states that the “violation of any humanitarian rules applicable in armed conflicts laid down in the Geneva Conventions of 1949” is a crime. 
Bangladesh, International Crimes (Tribunal) Act, 1973, Section 3(2)(e).
China
China’s Criminal Law (1979), as amended in 1997, provides:
Whoever, being charged with the duty of saving and treating servicemen during wartime, refuses to do so to a serviceman who, though critically sick or wounded, can be saved or treated, he shall be sentenced to fixed-term imprisonment of not more than five years or criminal detention; if he causes serious disability or death of the sick or wounded serviceman or if there are other serious circumstances involved, he shall be sentenced to fixed-term imprisonment of not less than five years but not more than 10 years. 
China, Criminal Law, 1979, as amended in 1997, Article 445.
Colombia
Colombia’s Penal Code (2000) imposes a criminal sanction on “anyone who, during an armed conflict, fails to rescue and provide assistance to protected persons, while having an obligation to do so”. 
Colombia, Penal Code, 2000, Article 152.
Cuba
Cuba’s Military Criminal Code (1979) punishes the failure to fulfil the obligations concerning care and treatment of the wounded and sick. 
Cuba, Military Criminal Code, 1979, Article 42(2).
Czech Republic
The Czech Republic’s Criminal Code (1961), as amended in 1999, provides for the punishment of anyone who does not take measures or obstructs measures to protect or provide assistance to the wounded. 
Czech Republic, Criminal Code, 1961, as amended in 1999, Article 263(2)(a).
Denmark
Denmark’s Military Criminal Code (1973), as amended in 1978, provides:
Any person who uses war instruments or procedures the application of which violates an international agreement entered into by Denmark or the general rules of international law, shall be liable to the same penalty [i.e. a fine, lenient imprisonment or up to 12 years’ imprisonment]. 
Denmark, Military Criminal Code, 1973, as amended in 1978, § 25(1).
Denmark’s Military Criminal Code (2005) provides:
Any person who deliberately uses war means [“krigsmiddel”] or procedures the application of which violates an international agreement entered into by Denmark or international customary law, shall be liable to the same penalty [i.e. imprisonment up to life imprisonment]. 
Denmark, Military Criminal Code, 2005, § 36(2).
Estonia
Under Estonia’s Penal Code (2001), “refusal to provide assistance to a sick, wounded or shipwrecked person in a war zone, if such refusal causes the death of or damage to the health of that person” is a war crime. 
Estonia, Penal Code, 2001, § 100.
Ethiopia
Ethiopia’s Criminal Code (2004) states:
Article 271.- War Crimes against Wounded, Sick or Shipwrecked Persons or Medical Services.
(1) Whoever, in the circumstances defined above [i.e., in time of war, armed conflict or occupation and in violation of the rules of public international law and of international humanitarian conventions] organizes, orders or engages in:
(a) … withholding medical care and attention required by their condition [from] … wounded, sick or shipwrecked persons …
is punishable in accordance with Article 270 [i.e., with rigorous imprisonment from five years to twenty-five years, or, in more serious cases, with life imprisonment or death]. 
Ethiopia, Criminal Code, 2004, Article 271(1).
France
France’s Code of Defence (2004), as amended in 2008, states: “Combatants must … protect and care for the wounded, sick and shipwrecked”. 
France, Code of Defence, 2004, as amended in 2008, Article D4122-8.
Ireland
Ireland’s Geneva Conventions Act (1962), as amended in 1998, provides that any “minor breach” of the 1949 Geneva Conventions, including violations of Articles 12 and 15 of the Geneva Convention I, Articles 12 and 18 of the Geneva Convention II and Article 16 of the Geneva Convention IV, and of the 1977 Additional Protocol I, including violations of Article 10, as well as any “contravention” of the 1977 Additional Protocol II, including violations of Articles 7(2) and 8, are punishable offences. 
Ireland, Geneva Conventions Act, 1962, as amended in 1998, Section 4(1) and (4).
Japan
Japan’s Civil Protection Law (2004) states: “Designated public institutions and designated local public institutions that are hospitals or other medical institutions shall implement necessary measures to ensure medical treatment in armed attack situations”. 
Japan, Civil Protection Law, 2004, Article 136.
Norway
Norway’s Military Penal Code (1902), as amended in 1981, provides:
Anyone who contravenes or is accessory to the contravention of provisions relating to the protection of persons or property laid down in … the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949 … [and in] the two additional protocols to these Conventions … is liable to imprisonment. 
Norway, Military Penal Code, 1902, as amended in 1981, § 108.
Peru
Peru’s Decree on the Use of Force by the Armed Forces (2010) states: “The wounded and sick shall be … cared for.” 
Peru, Decree on the Use of Force by the Armed Forces, 2010, Article 8.2.2.
Rwanda
Rwanda’s Law Repressing the Crime of Genocide, Crimes against Humanity and War Crimes (2003) provides:
Article: 10
“War crime” shall also mean any of the following acts committed in armed conflicts:
11° failure to medically treat the wounded, the sick, the shipwrecked and persons deprived of their liberty for reasons related to the armed conflict;
Article: 11
Anyone who commits one of the war crimes provided for in Article 10 of this law shall be punished by the following penalties:
2° imprisonment for ten (10) to twenty (20) years, where he has committed a crime provided for in point 3°, 8°, 11° or 12° of Article 10 of this law. 
Rwanda, Law Repressing the Crime of Genocide, Crimes against Humanity and War Crimes, 2003, Articles 10–11.
Senegal
Senegal’s Law Authorizing Ratification of the 2008 Convention on Cluster Munitions (2010) states:
In order to achieve [the] objectives [of the 2008 Convention on Cluster Munitions], each State Party has an obligation to adequately provide assistance, including medical care, rehabilitation, psychological support and social and economic inclusion … to cluster munitions victims in areas under its direction and control. 
Senegal, Law Authorizing Ratification of the 2008 Convention on Cluster Munitions, 2010, preamble, p. 1.
Slovakia
Slovakia’s Criminal Code (1961), as amended, provides for the punishment of anyone who does not take measures or obstructs measures to protect or provide assistance to the wounded. 
Slovakia, Criminal Code, 1961, as amended, Article 263(2)(a).
Somalia
Somalia’s Military Criminal Code (1963) states:
374. Failure to assist sick, wounded or shipwrecked soldiers. — 1. A soldier assigned to the medical service who, during or after combat, fails to lend his assistance to soldiers or other persons regularly accompanying the belligerent armed forces who are sick, wounded or shipwrecked, even if they are enemies, shall be punished by military confinement for 1 to 10 years.
2. If any of the above-mentioned offences is committed culpably, the penalty shall be military confinement for up to seven years.
382. Arbitrary refusal to recognize the status of lawful belligerent. — A commander who causes serious harm … to the sick, wounded or shipwrecked, by not according them the treatment prescribed by law or by international agreements … shall be punished, unless the act constitutes a more serious offence, by military confinement for not less than three years. 
Somalia, Military Criminal Code, 1963, Articles 374 and 382.
Spain
Spain’s Penal Code (1995) punishes the deprivation of necessary medical aid. 
Spain, Penal Code, 1995, Article 609.
Spain
Spain’s Penal Code (1995), as amended in 2003, states:
Anyone who [commits any of the following acts] during armed conflict shall be punished with three to seven years’ imprisonment:
3. [N]ot providing … necessary medical assistance to a protected person. 
Spain, Penal Code, 1995, as amended on 25 November 2003, Article 612(3).
Ukraine
Under Ukraine’s Criminal Code (2001), failure to fulfil the obligation to provide medical treatment and care to the wounded and sick constitutes a war crime. 
Ukraine, Criminal Code, 2001, Article 434.
United States of America
In July 2006, the US Deputy Secretary of Defense issued a memorandum to senior military and civilian personnel in the Department of Defense (DoD) on the subject of common Article 3 of the 1949 Geneva Conventions and its application to the treatment of detainees:
The Supreme Court Hamdan v. Rumsfeld, 548 US 557, 29 June 2006] has determined that Common Article 3 to the Geneva Conventions of 1949 applies as a matter of law to the conflict with Al Qaeda. The Court found that the military commissions as constituted by the Department of Defense are not consistent with Common Article 3.
It is my understanding that, aside from the military commission procedures, existing DoD orders, policies, directives, execute orders, and doctrine comply with the standards of Common Article 3 … In addition, you will recall the President’s prior directive [President George W. Bush, Memorandum, Humane Treatment of Al Qaeda and Taliban Detainees, 7 February 2002] that “the United States Armed Forces shall continue to treat detainees humanely,” humane treatment being the overarching requirement of Common Article 3.
You will ensure that all DoD personnel adhere to these standards. In this regard, I request that you promptly review all relevant directives, regulations, policies, practices and procedures under your purview to ensure that they comply with the standards of Common Article 3. 
United States, Department of Defense, Deputy Secretary of Defense, Gordon England, Memorandum, Application of Common Article 3 of the Geneva Conventions to the Treatment of Detainees in the Department of Defense, 7 July 2006.
Uruguay
Uruguay’s Military Penal Code (1943), as amended, provides for the punishment of the soldier who “fails to assist a surrendered enemy in cases of shipwreck, fire, explosion, earthquake or similar accidents”. It also punishes the soldier who does not assist, when possible, his own comrades in distress. 
Uruguay, Military Penal Code, 1943, as amended, Article 58(20)–(21)
Venezuela
Venezuela’s Code of Military Justice (1998), as amended, punishes “those who deny or impede assistance to the wounded and sick”. 
Venezuela, Code of Military Justice, 1998, as amended, Article 474(4).
Viet Nam
Viet Nam’s Penal Code (1990) provides for the punishment of “any person who … fails to care for or give medical treatment to a wounded soldier”. 
Viet Nam, Penal Code, 1990, Article 271(1).
Viet Nam
Viet Nam’s Penal Code (1999) provides for the punishment of anyone “who … leaves war wounded untended and untreated, thus causing serious consequences”. 
Viet Nam, Penal Code, 1999, § 336.1
Argentina
In the Military Junta case in 1985, Argentina’s National Court of Appeals established that, in a situation of internal violence, wounded persons should receive adequate treatment. 
Argentina, National Court of Appeals, Military Junta case, Judgment, 9 December 1985.
Canada
In 2010, in the Semrau case, Canada’s General Court Martial found that a member of the Canadian Operational Mentor and Liaison Team (OMLT) who had killed a wounded insurgent in Afghanistan in 2008 had thereby breached Canada’s Code of Service Discipline. The General Court Martial stated:
The code of conduct for CF [Canadian Forces] personnel clearly states that we must offer assistance to wounded enemies that do not pose a threat to us. The code of conduct was taught to every OMLT member and was part of the soldier’s card issued to every OMLT member. 
Canada, General Court Martial, Semrau case, Reasons for Sentence, 5 October 2010, § 10.
Colombia
In 2007, in the Constitutional Case No. C-291/07, the Plenary Chamber of Colombia’s Constitutional Court stated:
Taking into account … the development of customary international humanitarian law applicable in internal armed conflicts, the Constitutional Court notes that the fundamental guarantees stemming from the principle of humanity, some of which have attained ius cogens status, … [include] the obligation to … assist the wounded and sick. 
Colombia, Constitutional Court, Constitutional Case No. C-291/07, Judgment of 25 April 2007, p. 112.
[footnote in original omitted]
Israel
In its judgment in Physicians for Human Rights v. Commander of the IDF Forces in the West Bank in 2002, Israel’s High Court of Justice stated:
Though we are unable to express a position regarding the specific events mentioned in the petition … we see fit to emphasize that our combat forces are required to abide by the rules of humanitarian law regarding the care of the wounded, the ill and bodies of the deceased. 
Israel, High Court of Justice, Physicians for Human Rights v. Commander of the IDF Forces in the West Bank, Judgment, 8 April 2002.
South Africa
In 1987, in the Petane case, the Cape Provincial Division of South Africa’s Supreme Court dismissed the accused’s claim that the 1977 Additional Protocol I reflected customary international law. The Court stated:
The accused has been indicted before this Court on three counts of terrorism, that is to say, contraventions of s 54(1) of the Internal Security Act 74 of 1982. He has also been indicted on three counts of attempted murder.
The accused’s position is stated to be that this Court has no jurisdiction to try him.
… The point in its early formulation was this. By the terms of [the 1977 Additional] Protocol I to the [1949] Geneva Conventions the accused was entitled to be treated as a prisoner-of-war. A prisoner-of-war is entitled to have notice of an impending prosecution for an alleged offence given to the so-called “protecting power” appointed to watch over prisoners-of-war. Since, if such a notice were necessary, the trial could not proceed without it, Mr Donen suggested that the necessity or otherwise for giving such a notice should be determined before evidence was led. …
On 12 August 1949 there were concluded at Geneva in Switzerland four treaties known as the Geneva Conventions. …
South Africa was among the nations which concluded the treaties. … Except for the common art 3, which binds parties to observe a limited number of fundamental humanitarian principles in armed conflicts not of an international character, they apply to wars between States.
After the Second World War many conflicts arose which could not be characterised as international. It was therefore considered desirable by some States to extend and augment the provisions of the Geneva Conventions, so as to afford protection to victims of and combatants in conflicts which fell outside the ambit of these Conventions. The result of these endeavours was Protocol I and Protocol II to the Geneva Conventions, both of which came into force on 7 December 1978.
Protocol II relates to the protection of victims of non-international armed conflicts. Since the State of affairs which exists in South Africa has by Protocol I been characterised as an international armed conflict, Protocol II does not concern me at all.
The extension of the scope of art 2 of the Geneva Conventions was, at the time of its adoption, controversial. …
The article has remained controversial. More debate has raged about its field of operation than about any other articles in Protocol I. …
South Africa is one of the countries which has not acceded to Protocol I. Nevertheless, I am asked to decide, as I indicated earlier, as a preliminary point, whether Protocol I has become part of customary international law. If so, it is argued that it would have been incorporated into South African law. If it has been so incorporated it would have to be proved by one or other of the parties that the turmoil which existed at the time when the accused is alleged to have committed his offences was such that it could properly be described as an “armed conflict” conducted by “peoples” against a “ra[c]ist regime” in the exercise of their “right of self-determination”. Once all this has been shown it would have to be demonstrated to the Court that the accused conducted himself in such a manner as to become entitled to the benefits conferred by Protocol I on combatants, for example that, broadly speaking, he had, while he was launching an attack, distinguished himself from civilians and had not attacked civilian targets. …
… I am prepared to accept that where a rule of customary international law is recognised as such by international law it will be so recognised by our law.
To my way of thinking, the trouble with the first Protocol giving rise to State practice is that its terms have not been capable of being observed by all that many States. At the end of 1977 when the treaty first lay open for ratification there were few States which were involved in colonial domination or the occupation of other States and there were only two, South Africa and Israel, which were considered to fall within the third category of ra[c]ist regimes. Accordingly, the situation sought to be regulated by the first Protocol was one faced by few countries; too few countries in my view, to permit any general usage in dealing with armed conflicts of the kind envisaged by the Protocol to develop.
Mr Donen contended that the provisions of multilateral treaties can become customary international law under certain circumstances. I accept that this is so. There seems in principle to be no reason why treaty rules cannot acquire wider application than among the parties to the treaty.
Brownlie Principles of International Law 3rd ed at 13 agrees that non-parties to a treaty may by their conduct accept the provisions of a multilateral convention as representing general international law. …
I incline to the view that non-ratification of a treaty is strong evidence of non-acceptance.
It is interesting to note that the first Protocol makes extensive provision for the protection of civilians in armed conflict. …
In this sense, Protocol I may be described as an enlightened humanitarian document. If the strife in South Africa should deteriorate into an armed conflict we may all one day find it a cause for regret that the ideologically provocative tone of s 1(4) has made it impossible for the Government to accept its terms.
To my mind it can hardly be said that Protocol I has been greeted with acclaim by the States of the world. Their lack of enthusiasm must be due to the bizarre mixture of political and humanitarian objects sought to be realised by the Protocol. …
According to the International Review of the Red Cross (January/February 1987) No 256, as at December 1986, 66 States were parties to Protocol I and 60 to Protocol II, which, it will be remembered, deals with internal non-international armed conflicts. With the exception of France, which acceded only to Protocol II, not one of the world’s major powers has acceded to or ratified either of the Protocols. This position should be compared to the 165 States which are parties to the Geneva Conventions.
This approach of the world community to Protocol I is, on principle, far too half-hearted to justify an inference that its principles have been so widely accepted as to qualify them as rules of customary international law. The reasons for this are, I imagine, not far to seek. For those States which are contending with “peoples[’]” struggles for self-determination, adoption of the Protocol may prove awkward. For liberation movements who rely on strategies of urban terror for achieving their aims the terms of the Protocol, with its emphasis on the protection of civilians, may prove disastrously restrictive. I therefore do not find it altogether surprising that Mr Donen was unable to refer me to any statement in the published literature that Protocol I has attained the status o[f] customary international [law].
I have not been persuaded by the arguments which I have heard on behalf of the accused that the assessment of Professor Dugard, writing in the Annual Survey of South African Law (1983) at 66, that “it is argued with growing conviction that under contemporary international law members of SWAPO [South-West Africa People’s Organisation] and the ANC [African National Congress] are members of liberation movements entitled to prisoner-of-war status, in terms of a new customary rule spawned by the 1977 Protocols”, is correct. On what I have heard in argument I disagree with his assessment that there is growing support for the view that the Protocols reflect a new rule of customary international law. No writer has been cited who supports this proposition. Here and there someone says that it may one day come about. I am not sure that the provisions relating to the field of application of Protocol I are capable of ever becoming a rule of customary international law, but I need not decide that point today.
For the reasons which I have given I have concluded that the provisions of Protocol I have not been accepted in customary international law. They accordingly form no part of South African law.
This conclusion has made it unnecessary for me to give a decision on the question of whether rules of customary international law which conflict with the statutory or common law of this country will be enforced by its courts.
In the result, the preliminary point is dismissed. The trial must proceed. 
South Africa, Supreme Court, Petane case, Judgment, 3 November 1987, pp. 2–8.
South Africa
In 2010, in the Boeremag case, South Africa’s North Gauteng High Court stated:
In Petane, … Conradie J found that the provisions of [the 1977 Additional] Protocol I are not part of customary international law, and therefore are also not part of South African law.
Referring to the fact that in December 1986 only 66 of the 165 States party to the Geneva Conventions had ratified Protocol I, the Court [in Petane stated:
This approach of the world community to Protocol I is, on principle, far too half-hearted to justify an inference that its principles have been so widely accepted as to qualify them as rules of customary international law. The reasons for this are, I imagine, not far to seek. For those States which are contending with “peoples[’]” struggles for self-determination, adoption of the Protocol may prove awkward. For liberation movements who rely on strategies of urban terror for achieving their aims the terms of the Protocol, with its emphasis on the protection of civilians, may prove disastrously restrictive. I therefore do not find it altogether surprising that Mr Donen was unable to refer me to any statement in the published literature that Protocol I has attained the status of customary international law.
Important changes with respect to certain aspects applicable at the time of Petane have taken place. The ANC [African National Congress] has become South Africa’s ruling party and in 1995 ratified Protocol I. The total number of States that have ratified it, is now … 162.
This last aspect forms the basis on which the First Respondent [the State] and the applicants agree that Protocol I forms part of customary international law as well as of South African law. As requested, this position is accepted for the purposes of the decision, without deciding on the matter.
Despite these changes, it remains debatable whether the provisions of Protocol I have become a part of South African law in this way.
The consensus of both parties to the conflict is required. See Petane … and Article 96 of Protocol I. …
Parliament’s failure to incorporate Protocol I into legislation in accordance with Article 231(4) of the Constitution in fact points to the contrary, and is indicative that the requirements of usus and/or opinio juris have not been met. See Petane. 
South Africa, North Gauteng High Court, Boeremag case, Judgment, 26 August 2010, pp. 21–22.
[footnotes in original omitted]
The Court also held:
If the [1977 Additional Protocol I] applies in South Africa as customary international law, the two requirements that form the basis of customary law must be met. It is arguable that the requirement of usus has been met by the vast number of States that have acceded or ratified it. By ratifying Protocol I the Republic of South Africa has indicated its intention to apply the Protocol, thereby fulfilling the requirement of opinio juris. 
South Africa, North Gauteng High Court, Boeremag case, Judgment, 26 August 2010, p. 66.
Australia
The briefing notes prepared by the Office of the Attorney General of Australia and cleared by the Defence Forces for debate on the 1991 Geneva Conventions Amendment Bill stated that the 1977 Additional Protocol II had produced some important principles, including “general duties of care for the wounded and sick”. 
Australia, Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade, Geneva Protocols: Geneva Convention Amendment Bill, Doc. DFAT-92/013031 Pt 8, 13 February 1991, p. 2.
Colombia
The Report on the Practice of Colombia states that Colombia authorizes the Colombian Red Cross or the ICRC to render aid to the wounded. 
Report on the Practice of Colombia, 1998, Chapter 5.1, referring to Program Presidencial para la defensa de la libertad personal, Bogotá, April 1996, p. 17.
Djibouti
In 2010, in the History and Geography Textbook for 8th Grade, Djibouti’s Ministry of National Education and Higher Education, under the heading “Basic rules of IHL” and in a section on “Treatment”, stated: “Wounded, sick or shipwrecked enemy combatants shall be … cared for.” 
Djibouti, Ministry of National Education and Higher Education, History and Geography Textbook for 8th Grade, 2010, p. 194.
Egypt
The Report on the Practice of Egypt states:
In application of its long dated experience, Egypt considers the … care for wounded [and] sick … as a tradition which should be respected at all times and in any circumstance, particularly in time of military operations. 
Report on the Practice of Egypt, 1997, Chapter 5.7.
France
Under the instructions given to the French armed forces for the conduct of Opération Mistral, simulating a military operation under the right of self-defence or a mandate of the UN Security Council, “the wounded and sick, whether civilian or military, must be respected, collected, respected and cared for”. 
France, Etat-major de la Force d’Action Rapide, Ordres pour l’Opération Mistral, 1995, Section 6, § 62.
Germany
In 2010, in reply to a Minor Interpellation in the Bundestag (Lower House of Parliament) entitled “Treatment of child soldiers by the German armed forces (Bundeswehr) during operations abroad”, Germany’s Federal Government wrote:
8. Which procedures are envisaged for the treatment of child soldiers injured, apprehended or detained by the Bundeswehr?
All wounded and sick – also attackers – are to be given medical care if the situation permits. 
Germany, Lower House of Federal Parliament (Bundestag), Reply by the Federal Government to the Minor Interpellation by Members Paul Schäfer, Jan van Aken, Sevim Dağdelen, further Members and the Parliamentary Group DIE LINKE, BT-Drs. 17/2998, 21 September 2010, p. 4.
Honduras
In 1985, the Government of Honduras reported to the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights that medical professionals were caring for an individual wounded during an incident in a refugee camp by a member of a Honduran patrol. 
Inter-American Commission on Human Rights, Case 9619 (Honduras), Resolution, 28 March 1987, § 4.
India
According to the Report on the Practice of India, there is an obligation to provide immediate medical treatment to those who are injured in police firing. 
Report on the Practice of India, 1997, Chapter 5.1.
Islamic Republic of Iran
According to the Report on the Practice of the Islamic Republic of Iran, during the Iran–Iraq War, Iran brought wounded Iraqi combatants to safe places and treated them in accordance with Islamic principles which, according to Iran’s opinio juris, require that wounded and sick combatants be cared for. 
Report on the Practice of the Islamic Republic of Iran, 1997, Chapter 5.1.
Israel
In 2009, in a report on Israeli operations in Gaza between 27 December 2008 and 18 January 2009 (the “Gaza Operation”, also known as “Operation Cast Lead”), Israel’s Ministry of Foreign Affairs stated that the operational order contained the following provision: “Special protection shall be provided to the wounded and sick”. 
Israel, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, The Operation in Gaza 27 December 2008–18 January 2009: Factual and Legal Aspects, 29 July 2009, § 226.
Jordan
With reference to two communiqués issued by the General Military Commander in September 1970, the Report on the Practice of Jordan states that Jordan “made sure that adequate care to the wounded during the internal armed conflict which occurred in its territory in 1970 was provided”. 
Report on the Practice of Jordan, 1997, Chapter 5.1, referring to Communiqué from the General Military Commander, 18 September 1970 and Communiqué from the General Military Commander, 24 September 1970.
Malaysia
According to the Report on the Practice of Malaysia, enemy sick or wounded are handed over to the police, who are under an obligation to provide the necessary medical treatment. 
Report on the Practice of Malaysia, 1997, Chapter 5.1.
Netherlands
In 2005, in reply to written questions concerning, inter alia, the treatment of wounded persons in Afghanistan, the Minister of Defence of the Netherlands stated:
If persons are wounded during actions in which Dutch soldiers are involved, then they will be treated in accordance with international humanitarian law. International humanitarian law contains, amongst others, the obligation to take all possible measures to trace the wounded and sick and to provide them with the necessary care. 
Netherlands, Lower House of Parliament, Statement by the Minister of Defence, Handelingen, 2004–2005 Session, 14 September 2005, Appendix No. 2405, p. 4848.
Philippines
The Report on the Practice of the Philippines states:
In an armed conflict where guerilla warfare is the strategy used, distinguishing between civilians and combatants is very difficult. This is precisely the reason why the Philippines have adopted the same rules for both civilians and combatants with regard to the … care of the wounded [and] sick. 
Report on the Practice of the Philippines, 1997, Chapter 5.1.
Portugal
In 1989, when submitting information on the rights of detainees for consideration by the UN Sub-Commission on Human Rights, Portugal stated that where firearms were used, those wounded had to be given first aid as soon as possible. 
Portugal, Report on the Administration of Justice and the Human Rights of Detainees submitted to the UN Sub-Commission on Human Rights, UN Doc. E/CN.4/Sub.2/1989/20/Add.1, 15 June 1989, §§ 54 and 61(d).
Rwanda
In 1997, a senior officer of the Rwandese Patriotic Front (RPF) declared to a gathering of diplomats and NGO representatives that civilians caught in crossfire were being brought to hospital by members of the RPF in order to receive care. 
“Vers la fin de l’aventure des infiltrés”, La Nouvelle Relève, No. 346, 15 August 1997, pp. 1–2.
Somalia
In 1998, an ICRC publication entitled “Spared from the Spear” recorded traditional Somali practice in warfare as follows:
[A]fter the battle was over, a wounded man from the enemy was found on the battlefield, the traditional immunity code would require that he should … be … cared for and nursed until he was well again.
Examining the actual treatment of the war-wounded in traditional Somali conflicts, we find that, generally, … the enemy’s wounded who were found lying on the battlefield … were … treated for their wounds and given nutritious food to enhance the process of their healing. 
Somalia, Spared from the Spear, 1998, p. 43.
In 2011, in its comments on the concluding observations of the Human Rights Council concerning Somalia’s report, the Transitional Federal Government of Somalia referred to “Spared from the Spear” as its “own Geneva Conventions”:
In times of hostilities, the Biri-Ma-Geydo (Spared from the Spear), i.e. Somalia’s own “Geneva Conventions”[,] which existed long before the adoption of the Hague and Geneva Conventions, mitigated and regulated the conduct of clan hostilities and the treatment of immune groups. 
Somalia, Comments by the Transitional Federal Government of Somalia on the concluding observations of the Human Rights Council concerning the report of Somalia, submitted 21 September 2011, § 4.
South Africa
In its report on “Gross violations of human rights” committed between 1960 and 1993, South Africa’s Truth and Reconciliation Commission stated that it had evidence from the war in south-west Africa that “on occasion, badly wounded SWAPO [South Western Africa People’s Organisation] fighters were … not given medical treatment”. 
South Africa, Truth and Reconciliation Commission Report, 1998, Vol. 2, p. 54, § 47.
Sri Lanka
In 2008, in its combined third and fourth periodic reports to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, Sri Lanka stated:
The Ministry of Health has begun a school to train prosthetist-orthotists, in order to cater to the needs of amputees and others with physical disabilities. Training is ongoing, including for individuals from the North and East, with the potential to assist persons injured by war including landmine victims. It is expected to establish 24 training centres across the island. 
Sri Lanka, Combined third and fourth periodic reports to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, 20 January 2010, UN Doc. CRC/C/LKA/3-4, submitted 24 October 2008, § 183.
Switzerland
Switzerland’s ABC of International Humanitarian Law (2009) states:
Wounded, sick and shipwrecked
Wounded and sick are defined as members of the armed forces or Civilians, who are in need of medical attention and who renounce all acts of hostility. According to this definition, a wounded combatant who continues to make use of a weapon does not qualify.
International humanitarian law calls on all parties to a conflict to treat the wounded and sick in a humane way, i.e. to shelter, rescue and protect them and to provide medical care. No distinction is to be made, except of a medical nature, and Women are given special consideration. The same rules apply to shipwrecked persons, i.e. to all members of the armed forces and civilians in danger at sea or in any other body of water. Wounded, sick and shipwrecked Combatants are to be accorded Prisoner of war status. 
Switzerland, Federal Department of Foreign Affairs, ABC of International Humanitarian Law, 2009, p. 42.
Switzerland
In 2010, in its Report on IHL and Current Armed Conflicts, Switzerland’s Federal Council stated:
3.4 [Increasing use] of anti-guerrilla tactics
Apart from the direct fight against insurgents, international humanitarian law also addresses other anti-guerrilla tactics. … If members of militias or opposition groups fall into the hands of the government they benefit from the protection of art. 75 of [the 1977] Additional Protocol I as well as that of art. 3 common to the [1949] Geneva Conventions. 
Switzerland, Federal Council, Report on IHL and Current Armed Conflicts, 17 September 2010, Section 3.4, p. 15.
[footnotes in original omitted]
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
In 2003, in a reply to a written question in the House of Lords, the UK Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State, Ministry of Defence, wrote:
The Deployed Operating Instructions issued to all United Kingdom military units state that enemy dead are to be treated the same as UK military dead. This includes a direction that, where next of kin cannot be traced, the bodies are to be given the same funeral as would UK military personnel, subject to religious practices. Wounded enemy personnel are given care and medical attention that accord fully with our obligations under the Geneva Convention. 
United Kingdom, House of Lords, Written answer by the Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State for Defence, Hansard, 8 September 2003, Vol. 652, Written Answers, col. WA40.
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
The UK Government Strategy on the Protection of Civilians in Armed Conflict (2010) states: “During armed conflict, civilians and combatants ‘hors de combat’ are entitled to specific protection under international humanitarian law (IHL) providing that they are not, or are no longer, taking a direct part in hostilities. … [P]reventing the provision of medical care [is prohibited]”. 
United Kingdom, Foreign and Commonwealth Office, Government Strategy on the Protection of Civilians in Armed Conflict, March 2010, p. 4.
(emphasis in original)
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
In 2010, in its closing submissions to the public inquiry into the circumstances surrounding the death of Baha Mousa and the treatment of those detained with him by UK armed forces in Iraq in 2003, the UK Ministry of Defence stated regarding common Article 3 of the 1949 Geneva Conventions: “On its face this protection is restricted to armed conflicts not of an international character. However, it is understood to apply in all forms of armed conflict as part of customary international law to set out the irreducible minimum standard.” 
United Kingdom, Ministry of Defence, Closing Submissions to the Baha Mousa Public Inquiry on Modules 1–3, 25 June 2010, § 10.2, p. 10.
United States of America
According to the Report on US Practice, it is the opinio juris of the United States that the wounded and sick in internal armed conflicts should be respected and protected in accordance with Article 7 of the 1977 Additional Protocol II. They must receive the medical care required by their condition. 
Report on US Practice, 1997, Chapter 5.1.
Uruguay
In 1975, the Government of Uruguay informed the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights that a prisoner who was shot and seriously injured during an escape attempt was immediately given first aid and brought to a military hospital for surgery. 
Inter-American Commission on Human Rights, Case 1954 (Uruguay), Resolution, 6 March 1981, § 5.
Yugoslavia, Socialist Federal Republic of
In 1991, in a document entitled “Examples of violations of the rules of international law committed by the so-called armed forces of Slovenia”, the Ministry of Defence of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia included the following example:
It was quite normal to prevent assistance to be provided to the wounded YPA [Yugoslav People’s Army] soldiers … Civilian hospitals and clinics have refused to provide medical assistance to the wounded and sick soldiers and their dependants. 
Yugoslavia, Socialist Federal Republic of, Ministry of Defence, Examples of violations of the rules of international law committed by the so-called armed forces of Slovenia, 10 July 1991, § 3(i)–(ii); see also Secretariat of the Federal Executive Council, Press Release, Statement by Lieutenant-General Marko Negovanovic, Belgrade, 2 July 1991.
Zimbabwe
The Report on the Practice of Zimbabwe states: “Zimbabwe seems to regard as customary, the rules of international practice codified in the Geneva Conventions as regards the … care of the wounded.” 
Report on the Practice of Zimbabwe, 1998, Chapter 5.1.
UN Commission on Human Rights
In a resolution adopted in 1984, the UN Commission on Human Rights called on all parties to the conflict in El Salvador to respect and protect the wounded from all sides. 
UN Commission on Human Rights, Res. 1984/52, 14 March 1984, § 5, voting record: 24-5-13.
UN Commission on Human Rights
In a resolution adopted in 1991, the UN Commission on Human Rights called upon the parties “to guarantee respect for the humanitarian rules applicable to non-international armed conflicts such as that in El Salvador, particularly with regard to the evacuation of the war wounded and maimed in order that they receive prompt medical attention”. 
UN Commission on Human Rights, Res. 1991/75, 6 March 1991, § 9, adopted without a vote.
UN Sub-Commission on Human Rights
In a resolution adopted in 1989, the UN Sub-Commission on Human Rights reminded:
the Government of El Salvador that in accordance with Additional Protocol II to the Geneva Conventions, it must respect and give protection to the war-wounded and disabled, it may not prevent their evacuation by the International Committee of the Red Cross so that they may receive the medical attention they require. 
UN Sub-Commission on Human Rights, Res. 1989/9, 31 August 1989, § 4; see also § 3.
UN Commission on Human Rights (Special Rapporteur)
In 1995, in a report on the situation of human rights in Burundi, the Special Rapporteur of the UN Commission on Human Rights condemned the alleged practice of both parties of refusing to provide medical care to the wounded brought to clinics or hospitals. 
UN Commission on Human Rights, Special Rapporteur on the Situation of Human Rights in Burundi, Initial report, UN Doc. E/CN.4/1996/16, 14 November 1995, § 121.
UN Commission on Human Rights (Special Rapporteur)
In 1997, in a report on the situation of human rights in Nigeria, the UN Special Rapporteur on Extrajudicial, Summary or Arbitrary Executions and the UN Special Rapporteur on the Independence of Judges and Lawyers expressed particular concern that the Government of Nigeria had “reportedly denied medical care to detainees suffering from allegedly life-threatening conditions”. 
UN Commission on Human Rights, Special Rapporteur on Extrajudicial, Summary or Arbitrary Executions and Special Rapporteur on the Independence of Judges and Lawyers, Report on the situation of human rights in Nigeria, UN Doc. E/CN.4/1997/62/Add.1, 24 March 1997, § 76.
UN Observer Mission in El Salvador
In 1992, in a report concerning El Salvador, the Director of the Human Rights Division of ONUSAL reported that the wounded and sick were entitled to immediate care, failure to observe this rule of conduct being a serious violation of the norms of IHL. 
ONUSAL, Director of the Human Rights Division, Report for November and December 1991, UN Doc. A/46/876-S/23580, 19 February 1992, Annex, § 170.
Council of Europe
In 1995, the Rapporteur of the Council of Europe on the human rights situation in Chechnya reported two cases in which wounded Russian soldiers were attacked in hospitals but noted that these incidents were isolated and did not derive from a deliberate policy of the Chechen authorities. 
Council of Europe, Parliamentary Assembly, Opinion on the Russian Federation’s request for membership in the light of the situation in Chechnya, Doc. 7231, 2 February 1995, § 75.
European Parliament
In a resolution adopted in 1985 on the situation in Afghanistan, the European Parliament demanded that the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics allow the ICRC access to care for the wounded. 
European Parliament, Resolution on the situation in Afghanistan, 31 December 1985, § 1.
League of Arab States Council
In a resolution on Yemen adopted in 1964, the League of Arab States Council decided “to call upon the International Committee of the Red Cross to take the initiative of providing care for the wounded and help for the victims”. 
League of Arab States, Council, Res. 1984, 31 March 1964, § 3.
No data.
Eritrea-Ethiopia Claims Commission
In its Prisoners of War (Eritrea’s Claim) partial award in 2003, the Eritrea-Ethiopia Claims Commission, in considering the obligation to care for the wounded and sick, stated:
A State’s obligation to ensure humane treatment of enemy soldiers can be severely tested in the heated and confused moments immediately following capture or surrender and during evacuation from the battlefront to the rear. Nevertheless, customary international law as reflected in [the 1949] Geneva Conventions I and III … requires the wounded and sick to be … cared for. 
Eritrea-Ethiopia Claims Commission, Prisoners of War, Eritrea’s Claim, Partial Award, 1 July 2003, § 58.
ICRC
To fulfil its task of disseminating IHL, the ICRC has delegates around the world teaching armed and security forces that:
The wounded, sick and shipwrecked shall be … cared for …
The wounded and sick shall receive the medical care and attention required by their state of health. 
Frédéric de Mulinen, Handbook on the Law of War for Armed Forces, ICRC, Geneva, 1987, §§ 504 and 728.
ICRC
In a Memorandum on the Applicability of International Humanitarian Law sent in 1990 to all States party to the 1949 Geneva Conventions in the context of the Gulf War, the ICRC stated: “The wounded, the sick and the shipwrecked must be … cared for”. 
ICRC, Memorandum on the Applicability of International Humanitarian Law, 14 December 1990, § I, IRRC, No. 280, 1991, p. 24.
ICRC
In two press releases issued in 1991 in the context of the Gulf War, the ICRC reminded the parties: “The wounded, sick and shipwrecked members of the armed forces must be cared for; [and] the wounded, whether civilian or military, … must receive special consideration and protection.” 
ICRC, Press Release No. 1658, Gulf War: ICRC Reminds States of their Obligations, 17 January 1991, IRRC, No. 280, 1991, p. 26; Press Release No. 1659, Middle East Conflict: ICRC Appeals to Belligerents, 1 February 1991, IRRC, No. 280, 1991, p. 27.
ICRC
In a press release in 1992, the ICRC urged all the parties involved in the conflict in Tajikistan to ensure the protection of civilian and military victims and in particular “to ensure that the wounded and sick were cared for in all circumstances, regardless of the side to which they belong”. 
ICRC, Press Release, Tajikistan: ICRC urges respect for humanitarian rules, ICRC Dushanbe, 25 November 1992.
ICRC
In a press release in 1992, the ICRC urged all parties to the conflict in Nagorno-Karabakh “to ensure that the wounded and sick are cared for in all circumstances”.  
ICRC, Press Release No. 1700, Nagorno-Karabakh: ICRC calls for respect for humanitarian law, 12 March 1992.
ICRC
In a communication to the press in 1993, the ICRC enjoined the parties to the conflict in Somalia to “care for wounded and sick”. 
ICRC, Communication to the Press No. 93/17, Somalia: ICRC appeals for compliance with international humanitarian law, 17 June 1993.
ICRC
In a press release in 1994, the ICRC reminded the parties to the conflict in Afghanistan that the sick and wounded must be respected in all circumstances. 
ICRC, Press Release No. 1764, Afghanistan: ICRC calls for respect for the civilian population, 8 February 1994.
National Society (Mexico)
In a declaration issued in 1994 in the context of the conflict between the Mexican Government and the Ejército Zapatista de Liberación Nacional (EZLN), the Mexican Red Cross, basing itself on the 1949 Geneva Conventions and the 1977 Additional Protocol I, which it considered applicable to the situation in Chiapas, stated that the parties were under an obligation to protect and care for wounded persons in their power. 
Mexican Red Cross, Declaración en torno a los acontecimientos que se han presentado en el estado de Chiapas a partir del 1o. de enero de 1994, 3 January 1994, § 2(B).
ICRC
In 1994, in a Memorandum on Respect for International Humanitarian Law in Angola, the ICRC stated: “All the wounded and sick, both civilian and military, must be … cared for”. 
ICRC, Memorandum on Respect for International Humanitarian Law in Angola, 8 June 1994, § I, IRRC, No. 320, 1997, p. 503.
ICRC
In 1994, in a Memorandum on Compliance with International Humanitarian Law by the Forces Participating in Opération Turquoise in the Great Lakes region, the ICRC emphasized: “All the wounded and sick must be … cared for, without distinction, in accordance with the provisions laid down primarily in the First and Fourth Geneva Conventions.” 
ICRC, Memorandum on Compliance with International Humanitarian Law by the Forces Participating in Opération Turquoise, 23 June 1994, § I, reprinted in Marco Sassòli and Antoine A. Bouvier, How Does Law Protect in War?, ICRC, Geneva, 1999, p. 1308.
ICRC
In a press release in 1994, the ICRC called on parties to the conflict in Chechnya to ensure that the wounded and sick were cared for. 
ICRC, Press Release No. 1793, Chechnya: ICRC urges respect for humanitarian rules, 28 November 1994.
ICRC
In a press release in 1995, the ICRC appealed to all the parties involved in Turkey’s military operations in northern Iraq “to care for the wounded and sick”. 
ICRC, Press Release No. 1797, ICRC calls for compliance with international law in Turkey and Northern Iraq, 22 March 1995.
ICRC
In a communication to the press issued in 2000 in connection with the hostilities in the Near East, the ICRC stated: “The wounded and sick must be … cared for regardless of the party to which they belong.” 
ICRC, Communication to the Press No. 00/42, ICRC appeal to all involved in violence in the Near East, 21 November 2000.
Turku Declaration of Minimum Humanitarian Standards
The Turku Declaration of Minimum Humanitarian Standards, adopted by an expert meeting convened by the Institute for Human Rights of Åbo Akademi University in Turku/Åbo, Finland in 1990, provides:
In every circumstance, the wounded and sick, whether or not they have taken part in acts of violence, … shall receive, to the fullest extent practicable and with the least possible delay, the medical care and attention required by their condition. 
Turku Declaration of Minimum Humanitarian Standards, adopted by an expert meeting convened by the Institute for Human Rights, Åbo Akademi University, Turku/Åbo, 30 November–2 December 1990, Article 12, IRRC, No. 282, 1991, p. 334.
Sudan People’s Liberation Movement/Army (SPLM/A)
With reference to the Penal and Disciplinary Rules and OLS Ground Rules, the Report on SPLM/A Practice states: “The SPLM/A has a long-standing practice of care for the sick and wounded. This practice has been expressed in outstanding legal instruments of the SPLM/A.” 
Report on SPLM/A Practice, 1998, Chapter 5, referring to SPLM/A, Penal and Disciplinary Rules, 4 July 1984, Section 30(2) (“The SPLA as an organised and disciplined Army, shall observe and be bound by internationally recognized humanitarian standards for the conduct of warfare.”) and Agreement on Ground Rules for Operation Lifeline Sudan, 1995, preamble (expressing support for the 1949 Geneva Conventions and their Additional Protocols).