Practice Relating to Rule 129. The Act of Displacement
Section B. Evacuation of the civilian population
South Africa’s LOAC Teaching Manual (2008) states:
Establishment and Protection of Protected Zones
Co-operation with Civilian Authorities.
Belligerent Parties have a duty to cooperate with civilian authorities to aim at ensuring the survival of the civilian population with the least possible civilian casualties and damage, e.g. by taking safeguarding measures in favour of the population such as warning, provision of shelter, evacuation, information on dangerous areas, etc.
South Africa’s ICC Act (2002) reproduces the war crimes listed in the 1998 ICC Statute, including in non-international armed conflicts: “ordering the displacement of the civilian population for reasons related to the conflict, unless the security of the civilians involved or imperative military reasons so demand”.