Соответствующая норма
Chad
Practice Relating to Rule 142. Instruction in International Humanitarian Law within Armed Forces
Chad’s Instructor’s Manual (2006) states: “The main aim in teaching a law of war is to ensure full respect for the law of war by all members of the armed forces, regardless of their rank, time, location or situation. … The law of war must be incorporated into military instruction programmes.” 
Chad, Droit international humanitaire, Manuel de l’instructeur en vigueur dans les forces armées et de sécurité, Ministère de la Défense, Présidence de la République, Etat-major des Armées, 2006, p. 80; see also p. 91.
The manual also states:
Respect for IHL by combatants depends on two factors, prevention and repression.
(a) The measures and means of prevention [include]:
- Dissemination (teaching and training). 
Chad, Droit international humanitaire, Manuel de l’instructeur en vigueur dans les forces armées et de sécurité, Ministère de la Défense, Présidence de la République, Etat-major des Armées, 2006, p. 107.
The manual further states: that “the law of armed conflict must be taught and members of the armed forces must be familiar with it at all times”. 
Chad, Droit international humanitaire, Manuel de l’instructeur en vigueur dans les forces armées et de sécurité, Ministère de la Défense, Présidence de la République, Etat-major des Armées, 2006, p. 100.
Chad’s Order on the Establishment of a School for the Training of Trainers in IHL (2007) states:
Having considered Decree No. 424/PR/MDNACVG/92 of August 15, 1992 on the establishment of a group of joint service military schools within the Chadian national army;
Having considered Decree N ° 59/have/EMP/2002 of March 11, 2002 on the establishment and remit of a center of reference in International Humanitarian Law for Armed and Security Forces;
Having considered Decree No. 085/PR/MON/EMP/2006 of May 19, 2006 on the integration of teaching of International Humanitarian Law in the Armed and Security Forces training program;
Having considered Decree N ° 129/MDNACVG/EMP/2004 of August 17, 2004, on the establishment of a training center on peace-keeping operations.
ORDER
Article 1: A school for the training of trainers in international humanitarian law and peacekeeping has been created within the group of military schools referred to as (EFFDIH-MP).
Article 2: The school for the training of trainers in International humanitarian law and peacekeeping is responsible for:
- Developing a national program for teaching international humanitarian law (IHL);
- Designing and printing educational materials;
- Planning recycling seminars for the benefit of the personnel of the Armed and Security Forces;
- Setting up a system of annual assessment of the teaching of IHL and of the technical and practical knowledge of peace-keeping operations;
- Carrying out education and training of the personnel of the Armed and Security Forces, of troops waiting for deployment to peace operations with international, regional and/or sub- regional organizations; on the rules of engagement, of behaviour and reports. 
Chad, Order on the Establishment of a School for the Training of Trainers on IHL, 2007, Preamble and Articles 1–2.
Chad’s Emblem Law (2014) states:
The Ministry of Public Health and the Ministry of Defence ensure at all times strict compliance with the rules governing the use of the emblems of the red cross or the red crescent, the denomination “Red Cross” and “Red Crescent” and the distinctive signals. …
These Ministries shall take every appropriate step to prevent misuse, in particular:
- by disseminating the rules in question as widely as possible among the armed forces, the police forces, the administrative authorities and the civilian population;
- by issuing directives to the national civil and military authorities concerning the use of the emblem, in accordance with the [1949] Geneva Conventions and their [1977] Additional Protocols. 
Chad, Emblem Law, 2014, Article 8(1)–(2).
In 2007, in its initial report to the Committee against Torture, Chad stated:
37. The introduction of education in human rights and international humanitarian law in the syllabuses of the National Police, National Gendarmerie and Army Officers’ Colleges, as well as the creation of the Reference Centre for International Humanitarian Law, will make it possible to make good that deficiency [regarding the inadequate training of criminal investigation officers in interrogation techniques].
320. In order to adapt human rights and international humanitarian law to the context of national defence missions and operations for the maintenance of public order and security which have to be undertaken by the armed forces, an Order (No. 059/MNDR/EMP/02) establishing a reference centre on international humanitarian law (CRDIH) was signed by the Minister of National Defence in March 2002.
321. The tasks of this centre are:
- preparation of a national programme of training in international humanitarian law;
- design and publication of teaching materials.
322. Another regulatory instrument of the Minister of Defence (Order No. 24/MDNACVG/ENP/25 of 26 January 2005) permitted the establishment of a commission to prepare texts on international humanitarian law. It is fortunate in counting among its membership the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) and a magistrate who is an independent expert. This commission is also responsible for the revision of the Code of Ethics of the Gendarmerie with a view to incorporating the human rights and international humanitarian law dimension into it.
323. The next step was the integration of international humanitarian law into the training programmes of the armed forces and the security services (Order No. 85/MDN/ENP/05 of 19 May 2005). This order makes the teaching of international humanitarian law in the training establishments of the armed forces and the security services compulsory.
324. The reform process led to the publication of a document entitled “Instructor’s manual for use with the armed forces and the security services”. The manual was prepared with the participation of the national army, the group of inter-service military training colleges, the air force, the national gendarmerie, the National and Nomadic Guard and the national police. This manual is in fact a remodelled version of two volumes of the booklets published in cooperation with the LTDH [Chadian Human Rights League]. It contains new material and has been adapted for current training needs; it is printed in loose-leaf form and covers all the problems which the Chadian armed forces frequently encounter during hostilities. It consists of two parts.
325. The first part is devoted to humanitarian law. It is arranged in three levels. The content of the training is specific to each target group and corresponds to a particular level.
Level 1: common basic training imparted to all private soldiers and gendarmes (private soldiers and trainees in the gendarmerie, the Guard and the national police);
Level 2: training of first/year officer cadets, including non-commissioned officers;
Level 3: training of second/year officer, including subaltern officers.
326. The second part, which deals with human rights, is common to all levels. This is the part in which the subject of torture is treated.
327. The module on torture is based on the definition in article 1 of the relevant Convention and specifies that it is a fundamental violation of human rights. It also lays emphasis on the provisions of the basic legislation prohibiting torture and cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment.
328. In this module the different forms of torture are listed together with the measures which can be taken in the light of other international human rights instruments. The 12 points of Amnesty International’s Programme for the Prevention of Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment by Agents of the State are also reproduced in the manual for general use in the training colleges for members of the armed forces and security services. For example, they are taught how to conduct independent investigations into allegations of torture and the invalidity of statements extracted under torture.
329. Twenty-five trainers have already received training in the use of the manual, 500 copies of which are to be printed to make it available in all training establishments for members of the armed forces and security services in Chad. The content of the teaching on humanitarian law and human rights will henceforth be the same in all schools, since the programme is now of national scope. 
Chad, Initial report to the Committee against Torture, 22 September 2008, UN Doc. CAT/C/TCD/1, submitted 4 September 2007, §§ 37 and 320–329.
In 2009, in its written replies to the issues raised by the Human Rights Committee with regard to Chad’s initial report, Chad stated:
84. In order to adapt human rights and international humanitarian law to the context of national defence missions and operations for the maintenance of public order and security which have to be undertaken by the Armed Forces, a reference centre on international humanitarian law (CRDIH) was established by the Minister of National Defence in March 2002 by Order No. 059/MNDR/EMP/02.
85. Another regulatory instrument of the Minister of Defence (Order No. 24/MDNACVG/ENP/25 of 26 January 2005) permitted the establishment of a commission to prepare texts on international humanitarian law. This commission is also responsible for the revision of the Code of Ethics of the Gendarmerie to incorporate the human rights and international humanitarian law dimension. The next step was the integration of international humanitarian law into the training programme of the Armed Forces under Order No. 85/MDN/ENP/05. This order makes the teaching of international humanitarian law in the training establishments of the Armed Forces compulsory.
86. The reform process led to the publication of a document entitled “Instructor’s manual for use with the armed forces and the security services”. The manual was prepared with the participation of the national army, the group of inter-service military training colleges, the Air Force, the national gendarmerie, the Nomadic Guard and the national police, in cooperation with LTDH. It consists of two parts:
(a) The first part is devoted to humanitarian law. It is arranged in three levels. The content of the training is specific to each target group and corresponds to a particular level:
Level 1: common basic training for all private soldiers and gendarmes (private soldiers and cadets in the gendarmerie, the Guard and the national police);
Level 2: training for first-year cadets, including non-commissioned officers;
Level 3: training for second-year officer cadets, including subaltern officers.
(b) The second part deals with human rights and is common to all levels. This part deals with the subject of torture.
87. Twenty-five trainers have now received training in the use of the manual, 500 copies of which are to be printed to make it available in all training establishments for members of the Armed Forces and security services in Chad. The content of the teaching on humanitarian law and human rights will henceforth be the same in all military. 
Chad, Written replies by the Government of Chad to the Human Rights Committee concerning the list of issues to be taken up in connection with the initial report of Chad, 20 January 2009, UN Doc. CCPR/C/TCD/Q/1/Add.1, submitted 12 January 2009, §§ 84–87.
Chad also stated:
The recruitment into the army of minors under 18 is officially prohibited by law. Children can nevertheless be found in military camps and among armed groups, although there are no statistics on this. Awareness campaigns have been organized by United Nations agencies and international NGOs with a view to curbing the problem … In addition, international humanitarian law is taught in the gendarmerie and police academies. 
Chad, Written replies by the Government of Chad to the Human Rights Committee concerning the list of issues to be taken up in connection with the initial report of Chad, 20 January 2009, UN Doc. CCPR/C/TCD/Q/1/Add.1, submitted 12 January 2009, § 47.
In 2012, in its second periodic report to the Human Rights Committee, Chad stated:
128. The Government’s resolve to bring to justice those responsible for serious human rights violations [committed during the events of February 2008 when armed groups entered the territory of Chad] was reflected in the setting up of a Commission of Inquiry. Having completed its task, that Commission submitted its findings [Report on the events that took place in the Republic of Chad between 28 January to 8 February 2008 and on their consequences]. The Government set up a technical committee to follow up its recommendations.
130. The [Human Rights] Committee had suggested that the Government should promptly implement … [the] recommendations [of the Commission of Inquiry]. It has done so by taking the following measures:
– Teaching of international humanitarian law to law enforcement services.
131. Furthermore, pursuant to the recommendations of the Commission of Inquiry into the events of 28 to January to 8 February 2008, the Government decided to establish by Decree No. 1126/PM/2008 a Committee to follow up those recommendations, composed of members of the Government and chaired by the Prime Minister. 
Chad, Second periodic report to the Human Rights Committee, 28 January 2013, UN Doc. CCPR/C/TCD/2, submitted 20 July 2012, §§ 128 and 130–131.
Chad’s Instructor’s Manual (2006) states:
The troop commander … must ensure that … [h]is subordinates know their obligations under the law of war.
The main aim in teaching the law of war is to ensure full respect for the law of war by all members of the armed forces regardless of their rank, time, location or social status.
- This teaching must be incorporated into the military training programmes.
Each commander is fully responsible for ensuring that the law of war is appropriately taught in his unit. 
Chad, Droit international humanitaire, Manuel de l’instructeur en vigueur dans les forces armées et de sécurité, Ministère de la Défense, Présidence de la République, Etat-major des Armées, 2006, p. 76; see also p. 80.