Practice Relating to Rule 106. Conditions for Prisoner-of-War Status
Section B. Levée en masse
New Zealand’s Military Manual (1992) states:
Civilians who take up arms on the approach of an enemy to resist the invasion of their State constitute a levée en masse
and are regarded as combatants so long as they carry their arms openly and respect the laws and customs of war … They are not entitled to such treatment if they take up arms after their territory has been occupied, unless they are so organised as to constitute a resistance movement.