Practice Relating to Rule 43. Application of General Principles on the Conduct of Hostilities to the Natural Environment
Norway’s Military Penal Code (1902), as amended in 1981, provides:
Anyone who contravenes or is accessory to the contravention of provisions relating to the protection of persons or property laid down in … the two additional protocols to [the 1949 Geneva] Conventions … is liable to imprisonment.
Norway’s Penal Code (1902), as amended in 2008, states:
Any person is liable to punishment for a war crime who in connection with an armed conflict … launches an attack in the knowledge that such attack will cause … damage to the natural environment which would be excessive in relation to the concrete and direct overall military advantage anticipated.