Practice Relating to Rule 147. Reprisals against Protected Objects
Section E. Natural environment
The Military Manual (1993) of the Netherlands, in the chapter dealing with reprisals and referring, inter alia
, to Article 55 of the 1977 Additional Protocol I, states: “Attacks against the natural environment by way of reprisal are prohibited.”
The Military Manual (2005) of the Netherlands states:
In the history of warfare, reprisals carried out have often exceeded the set limits. This has led to the current prohibition, in the humanitarian law of war and specifically in AP I [1977 Additional Protocol I], of reprisals against several groups of people and objects.
The following are now forbidden as reprisals:
- attacks against the natural environment.
In its chapter on the protection of the civilian population, the manual states that “reprisals against protected persons and their property are prohibited”.