Practice Relating to Rule 59. Improper Use of the Distinctive Emblems of the Geneva Conventions
Nicaragua’s Military Penal Law (1980) punishes “anyone who, in the area of military operations, unlawfully uses symbols of the Red Cross”.
Nicaragua’s Military Penal Code (1996) punishes any soldier who, in time of war and in an area of military operations, “unlawfully displays … the insignia, flags or emblems of the Red Cross”.
Nicaragua’s Emblem Law (2002) provides: “The emblem of the Red Cross, as well as the denominations ‘Red Cross’ and ‘Geneva Cross’, may only be used for the purposes defined under the Geneva Conventions of 1949 and their Additional Protocols of 1977.”