Practice Relating to Rule 59. Improper Use of the Distinctive Emblems of the Geneva Conventions
Japan’s Self-Defence Force Notification (1965) provides that the commander of a unit should prevent the use of the red cross emblem by persons not entitled to use it.
Japan’s Emblem Law (1947) provides that the emblem of the red cross (and equivalent) should not be used without permission.
Anyone who violates this provision may be sentenced to imprisonment.
Japan’s Civil Protection Law (2004) states:
(Issuance etc. of Red Cross Emblems etc.)
1. No person may abuse, in armed attack situations etc., distinctive signals (distinctive signal under Article 8 (m) of the  Additional Protocol I … or identity cards (identity card under Article 18 Paragraph 3 of the Additional Protocol I).
A person who falls under either of the following shall be subject to imprisonment of not more than six months or a fine of not more than 300,000 yen:
(2) A person who abuses distinctive signals or identity cards in violation of Article 157 Paragraph 1.