Practice Relating to Rule 6. Civilians’ Loss of Protection from Attack
Spain’s LOAC Manual (1996) states: “Civilians must not take a direct part in hostilities nor be the object of attack, unless they take a direct part in hostilities.”
Spain’s LOAC Manual (2007) states: “Civilians must not take a direct part in hostilities. They must not be attacked unless they take a direct part in the armed conflict.”
The manual also states “The categories of people taking a direct part in the hostilities who are not entitled to combatant status include the employees of private security companies who exceed their duties and carry out actions that are unlawful under international law.”
Spain’s LOAC Manual (1996) states: “The civilian population does not lose its civilian character by the fact that persons who are not civilians are present among the civilian population.”
Spain’s LOAC Manual (2007) states: “The presence within the civilian population of individuals who do not come within the definition of civilians does not deprive the population of its civilian character.”
Spain’s LOAC Manual (1996) contains a rule identical to that in Article 50(1) of the 1977 Additional Protocol I.
Spain’s LOAC Manual (2007) states: “If there is any doubt about whether a person is a civilian or not, that person must be presumed to be a civilian.”