Соответствующая норма
Spain
Practice Relating to Rule 147. Reprisals against Protected Objects
Spain’s LOAC Manual (1996) lists among the persons against whom the taking of reprisals is prohibited “civilian persons and objects”. It refers, however, to Article 46 of the 1949 Geneva Convention I (relative to the prohibition of reprisals against the wounded, the sick and medical personnel protected under the 1949 Geneva Convention I). 
Spain, Orientaciones. El Derecho de los Conflictos Armados, Publicación OR7-004, 2 Tomos, aprobado por el Estado Mayor del Ejército, Division de Operaciones, 18 March 1996, Vol. I, § 3.3.c.(5)(b).
The manual also refers to Article 52 of the 1977 Additional Protocol I with regard to the prohibition of reprisals against cultural objects. In another provision, the manual, also referring to Article 52 of the 1977 Additional Protocol I, states: “Property of a civilian character will not be made the object of attacks nor of reprisals.” 
Spain, Orientaciones. El Derecho de los Conflictos Armados, Publicación OR7-004, 2 Tomos, aprobado por el Estado Mayor del Ejército, Division de Operaciones, 18 March 1996, Vol. I, § 7.3.b.(1).
Spain’s LOAC Manual (2007) lists “civilian property” among the objects against which the taking of reprisals is prohibited. 
Spain, Orientaciones. El Derecho de los Conflictos Armados, Tomo 1, Publicación OR7–004, (Edición Segunda), Mando de Adiestramiento y Doctrina, Dirección de Doctrina, Orgánica y Materiales, 2 November 2007, § 3.3.c.(5); see also § 11.8.c.
The manual also states: “Civilian objects must not be targeted in … reprisals.” 
Spain, Orientaciones. El Derecho de los Conflictos Armados, Tomo 1, Publicación OR7–004, (Edición Segunda), Mando de Adiestramiento y Doctrina, Dirección de Doctrina, Orgánica y Materiales, 2 November 2007, § 7.3.b.(1).
The manual further states: “Any area, facility or object that does not fulfil any of the requirements … which would qualify it as a military objective, must be considered a civilian object and, as such, must not be made the object of … reprisals”. 
Spain, Orientaciones. El Derecho de los Conflictos Armados, Tomo 1, Publicación OR7–004, (Edición Segunda), Mando de Adiestramiento y Doctrina, Dirección de Doctrina, Orgánica y Materiales, 2 November 2007, § 4.2.b.(2); see also §§ 1.3.b.(2) and 4.5.b.(2).(b).
Spain’s Penal Code (1995) provides:
[Shall be punished] whoever, in the event of an armed conflict: … attacks or makes the object of reprisals or the object of hostilities civilian objects of the adverse party, causing extensive destruction, provided that the said acts do not offer a definite military advantage in the circumstances of the case or that the said objects do not make an effective contribution to the adverse party’s military effort. 
Spain, Penal Code, 1995, Article 613(1)(b).
Spain’s Penal Code (1995), as amended in 2010, states:
1. Anyone who in the event of an armed conflict commits or orders to be committed any of the following acts shall be punished with four to six years’ imprisonment:
d. … [M]aking … civilian objects of the adverse party the object of reprisals … , causing their destruction, provided that in the circumstances ruling at the time such property does not offer a definite military advantage nor makes an effective contribution to the military action of the adversary;
2. … In all other cases mentioned in the above article, the higher sentence can be imposed when extensive and important destructions are caused to the property, objects or installations or [the acts] are of extreme gravity. 
Spain, Penal Code, 1995, as amended on 23 June 2010, Article 613(1)(d) and (2).
Spain’s LOAC Manual (1996), referring to Article 46 of the 1949 Geneva Convention I, Article 47 of the 1949 Geneva Convention II and Article 20 of the 1977 Additional Protocol I, lists among the persons and objects against whom/which the taking of reprisals is prohibited “the wounded, sick and shipwrecked, as well as specially protected persons and property”. 
Spain, Orientaciones. El Derecho de los Conflictos Armados, Publicación OR7-004, 2 Tomos, aprobado por el Estado Mayor del Ejército, Division de Operaciones, 18 March 1996, Vol. I, § 3.3.c.(5)(b).
Spain’s LOAC Manual (2007), referring to Article 46 of the 1949 Geneva Convention I, Article 47 of the 1949 Geneva Convention II and Article 20 of the 1977 Additional Protocol I, lists “property under special protection” among the objects against which the taking of reprisals is prohibited. 
Spain, Orientaciones. El Derecho de los Conflictos Armados, Tomo 1, Publicación OR7–004, (Edición Segunda), Mando de Adiestramiento y Doctrina, Dirección de Doctrina, Orgánica y Materiales, 2 November 2007, § 3.3.c.(5).
Spain’s LOAC Manual (1996), referring to Articles 52 and 53 of the 1977 Additional Protocol I and Article 4 of the 1954 Hague Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property, lists “cultural objects” among the persons and objects against whom/which the taking of reprisals is prohibited. 
Spain, Orientaciones. El Derecho de los Conflictos Armados, Publicación OR7-004, 2 Tomos, aprobado por el Estado Mayor del Ejército, Division de Operaciones, 18 March 1996, Vol. I, § 3.3.c.(5)(b).
In another provision, the manual states:
Combatants must remember that it is prohibited to commit acts of hostility, to execute reprisals … against the property which constitutes the cultural or spiritual heritage of peoples, regardless of whether it is public or private property. 
Spain, Orientaciones. El Derecho de los Conflictos Armados, Publicación OR7-004, 2 Tomos, aprobado por el Estado Mayor del Ejército, Division de Operaciones, 18 March 1996, Vol. I, § 7.3.b.(2).
Spain’s LOAC Manual (2007), referring to Articles 52 and 53 of the 1977 Additional Protocol I and Article 4 of the 1954 Hague Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property, lists “cultural property” among the objects against which the taking of reprisals is prohibited. 
Spain, Orientaciones. El Derecho de los Conflictos Armados, Tomo 1, Publicación OR7–004, (Edición Segunda), Mando de Adiestramiento y Doctrina, Dirección de Doctrina, Orgánica y Materiales, 2 November 2007, § 3.3.c.(5); see also § 7.3.b.(2).(a).
The manual additionally states that “reprisals are not permitted against … cultural property [and] places of worship”. 
Spain, Orientaciones. El Derecho de los Conflictos Armados, Tomo 1, Publicación OR7–004, (Edición Segunda), Mando de Adiestramiento y Doctrina, Dirección de Doctrina, Orgánica y Materiales, 2 November 2007, § 11.8.c.
Spain’s Penal Code (1995) provides:
[Shall be punished] whoever, in the event of an armed conflict: a) attacks or makes the object of reprisals or the object of hostilities clearly recognizable cultural objects or places of worship which constitute the cultural or spiritual heritage of peoples and upon which, by virtue of special agreements, protection is conferred, causing, as a consequence, extensive destruction of such objects, and provided that such objects are not situated in the immediate proximity of military objectives or are not used in support of the military effort of the adversary. 
Spain, Penal Code, 1995, Article 613(1)(a).
Spain’s Penal Code (1995), as amended in 2003, states:
Anyone who in the event of an armed conflict commits or orders to be committed any of the following acts shall be punished with four to six years’ imprisonment:
a) … [R]eprisals or hostile acts against cultural property or places of worship which are clearly identified and constitute cultural or spiritual heritage of peoples and which is protected by special agreements or cultural property under enhanced protection, causing extensive damage, as long as such property is not situated in the immediate proximity of military objectives and is not used in support of the enemy’s military effort. 
Spain, Penal Code, 1995, as amended on 25 November 2003, Article 613(1)(a).
Spain’s Penal Code (1995), as amended in 2010, states:
1. Anyone who in the event of an armed conflict commits or orders to be committed any of the following acts shall be punished with four to six years’ imprisonment:
a. … [R]eprisals or hostile acts against cultural property or places of worship which are clearly identified and constitute the cultural or spiritual heritage of peoples, as long as such property is not situated in the immediate proximity of military objectives and is not used in support of the enemy’s military effort;
2. When the … reprisal or hostile act … is against cultural property or places of worship which are protected by special agreements or are under enhanced protection … a higher sentence can be imposed.
In all other cases mentioned in the above article, the higher sentence can be imposed when extensive and important destructions are caused to the property, objects or installations or [the acts] are of extreme gravity. 
Spain, Penal Code, 1995, as amended on 23 June 2010, Article 613(1)(a) and (2).
Spain’s Royal Ordinances for the Armed Forces (2009) states that members of the armed forces “[m]ust not make cultural property or places dedicated to religion, which are clearly identified and constitute the cultural or spiritual heritage of peoples, and to which an enhanced protection has been granted by special agreements … the object of reprisals.” 
Spain, Royal Ordinances for the Armed Forces, 2009, Article 113.
Spain’s LOAC Manual (1996) lists “objects indispensable to the survival of the civilian population” among the persons and objects against whom/which the taking of reprisals is prohibited. 
Spain, Orientaciones. El Derecho de los Conflictos Armados, Publicación OR7-004, 2 Tomos, aprobado por el Estado Mayor del Ejército, Division de Operaciones, 18 March 1996, Vol. I, § 3.3.c.(5)(b).
Spain’s LOAC Manual (2007), referring to Article 55 of the 1977 Additional Protocol I, lists “objects indispensible to the survival of the civilian population” among the objects against which the taking of reprisals is prohibited. 
Spain, Orientaciones. El Derecho de los Conflictos Armados, Tomo 1, Publicación OR7–004, (Edición Segunda), Mando de Adiestramiento y Doctrina, Dirección de Doctrina, Orgánica y Materiales, 2 November 2007, § 3.3.c.(5); see also § 11.8.c.
Spain’s LOAC Manual (1996) lists among the persons and objects against whom/which the taking of reprisals is prohibited “the natural environment” and refers to Article 55 of the 1977 Additional Protocol I. 
Spain, Orientaciones. El Derecho de los Conflictos Armados, Publicación OR7-004, 2 Tomos, aprobado por el Estado Mayor del Ejército, Division de Operaciones, 18 March 1996, Vol. I, § 3.3.c.(5)(b).
Spain’s LOAC Manual (2007), referring to Article 55 of the 1977 Additional Protocol I, lists “the natural environment” among the objects against which the taking of reprisals is prohibited. 
Spain, Orientaciones. El Derecho de los Conflictos Armados, Tomo 1, Publicación OR7–004, (Edición Segunda), Mando de Adiestramiento y Doctrina, Dirección de Doctrina, Orgánica y Materiales, 2 November 2007, § 3.3.c.(5); see also § 11.8.c.
Spain’s LOAC Manual (1996) lists “works and installations containing dangerous forces” among the persons and objects against whom/which the taking of reprisals is prohibited and refers to Article 56 of the 1977 Additional Protocol I. 
Spain, Orientaciones. El Derecho de los Conflictos Armados, Publicación OR7-004, 2 Tomos, aprobado por el Estado Mayor del Ejército, Division de Operaciones, 18 March 1996, Vol. I, § 3.3.c.(5)(b).
Spain’s LOAC Manual (2007), referring to Article 56 of the 1977 Additional Protocol I, lists “works and installations containing dangerous forces” among the objects against which the taking of reprisals is prohibited. 
Spain, Orientaciones. El Derecho de los Conflictos Armados, Tomo 1, Publicación OR7–004, (Edición Segunda), Mando de Adiestramiento y Doctrina, Dirección de Doctrina, Orgánica y Materiales, 2 November 2007, § 3.3.c.(5); see also § 11.8.c.
Spain’s Penal Code (1995) provides:
[Shall be punished] whoever, in the event of an armed conflict: … attacks or makes the object of reprisals works or installations containing dangerous forces, if such attack may cause the release of dangerous forces and consequent severe losses among the civilian population, except if such works or installations are used in regular, significant and direct support of military operations and if such attack is the only feasible way to terminate such support. 
Spain, Penal Code, 1995, Article 613(1)(d).
Spain’s Penal Code (1995), as amended in 2010, states:
1. Anyone who in the event of an armed conflict commits or orders to be committed any of the following acts shall be punished with four to six years’ imprisonment:
f. … [R]eprisals [against] works and installations containing dangerous forces, if such attacks may cause the release of such forces and cause, as a result, considerable losses among the civilian population, except in the case that such works or installations are regularly used in significant and direct support of military operations and that such attacks are the only feasible means of ending such support;
2. … In all other cases mentioned in the above article, the higher sentence can be imposed when extensive and important destructions are caused to the property, objects or installations or [the acts] are of extreme gravity. 
Spain, Penal Code, 1995, as amended on 23 June 2010, Article 613(1)(f) and (2).