Practice Relating to Rule 1. The Principle of Distinction between Civilians and Combatants
In its written statement submitted to the ICJ in the Nuclear Weapons case in 1995, Egypt stated:
The distinction between combatants and non-combatants is one of the most important victories and accomplishments of international law since the early beginnings of the nineteenth century. Any authorization of nuclear weapons will definitely cause this principle to collapse.
The Report on the Practice of Egypt (1997) states that according to Egypt’s Military Criminal Code, “armed gangs and rebels” are considered to be “enemies”.
In its written statement submitted to the ICJ in the Nuclear Weapons case
in 1995, Egypt asserted that the use of nuclear weapons would violate basic principles of the international law of armed conflict, including “the prohibition to attack civilians”.