Practice Relating to Rule 44. Due Regard for the Natural Environment in Military Operations
In 1997, Colombia’s Defensoría del Pueblo (Ombudsman’s Office) denounced guerrilla attacks on oil pipelines as a violation of IHL insofar as oil spills inflicted damage on the environment, which affected both natural water sources and the productivity of the land.
The Report on the Practice of Colombia states that it is Colombia’s opinio juris
that “the parties to the conflict must protect the environment, endeavouring to prevent the damage to the natural environment caused by war operations”.