Practice Relating to Rule 92. Mutilation and Medical, Scientific or Biological Experiments
Côte d’Ivoire’s Teaching Manual (2007) provides in Book III, Volume 2 (Instruction of second-year trainee officers):
I.3. War crimes
This is by far the breach which can take the most varied forms. It relates to the grave breaches of the 1949 Geneva Conventions, namely the following acts directed against the persons or objects protected by these acts:
- torture or inhuman treatment, including biological experiments.
Under Côte d’Ivoire’s Penal Code (1981) as amended in 1998, organizing, ordering or carrying out, in time of war or occupation, biological experiments on the civilian population constitutes a “crime against the civilian population”.