Practice Relating to Rule 59. Improper Use of the Distinctive Emblems of the Geneva Conventions
Côte d’Ivoire’s Teaching Manual (2007) provides in Book IV (Instruction of heads of division and company commanders):
It is prohibited:
a. to make improper use of the distinctive emblem of the red cross, red crescent, red crystal or of other emblems, signs or signals provided for by the Geneva Conventions or the Additional Protocols.
Côte d’Ivoire’s Penal Code (1981), as amended in 1998, punishes “anyone who, in an area of military operations, uses, in violation of the laws and customs of war, the distinctive insignia and emblems, defined by international conventions, to ensure respect for protected persons, objects and places”.
Côte d’Ivoire’s Penal Code (1981), as amended in 2015, states:
Whoever commits a war crime is punished with life imprisonment.
War crimes are:
2 - other serious violations of the laws and customs applicable in international armed conflict, within the established framework of international law, namely, any of the following acts:
- making improper use … of the distinctive emblems of the Geneva Conventions, resulting in death or serious personal injury[.]