Practice Relating to Rule 45. Causing Serious Damage to the Natural Environment
Italy’s IHL Manual (1991) states: “It is prohibited to use means and methods of warfare, which may cause … widespread, long-term and severe damage to the natural environment.”
At the CDDH, while expressing its readiness to join in a consensus on the adoption of Article 48 bis
of the draft Additional Protocol I (now Article 55), Italy stated that this article “marked a big step forward in the protection of the natural environment in the event of international armed conflict”.