Practice Relating to Rule 97. Human Shields
Croatia’s Commanders’ Manual (1992) forbids the use of civilians or populated areas as shields for the protection of military units, movements or positions.
Croatia’s Criminal Code (1997), as amended to 2006, states that it is a war crime to “order civilians and other protected persons to be used to shield certain places, areas or military forces from military operations”.
The Report on the Practice of Croatia refers to a communiqué of the Ministry of Defence in 1995 which stated that the Croatian authorities had taken into custody and prosecuted the commander of a small Croatian military unit because of his alleged use of seven Danish UN peacekeepers as human shields during the August 1995 military operations.