Practice Relating to Rule 102. Individual Criminal Responsibility
France’s LOAC Summary Note (1992) provides: “No one shall be held responsible for an act he did not commit.”
France’s LOAC Manual (2001) provides that one of the three main principles common to IHL and human rights is the principle of security, which guarantees to every human being the right not to be held responsible for an offence he or she did not commit.
The manual further states: “No protected person may be punished for an offence he or she has not personally committed.”