Norma relacionada
Zimbabwe
Practice Relating to Rule 74. Chemical Weapons
Zimbabwe has incorporated the 1993 Chemical Weapons Convention into national law by means of the Chemical Weapons Prohibition Act (1998). 
Zimbabwe, Chemical Weapons Prohibition Act, 1998.
At the First Conference of States Parties to the Chemical Weapons Convention in 1997, Zimbabwe made statements in support of the object and purpose of the 1993 Chemical Weapons Convention. 
Zimbabwe, Statement at the First Conference of States Parties to the Chemical Weapons Convention, The Hague, 6–23 May 1997.
According to the Report on the Practice of Zimbabwe, Zimbabwe’s acceptance of the prohibition of the use of chemical weapons as part of customary international law may be deduced from its stance in international fora. 
Report on the Practice of Zimbabwe, 1998, Chapter 3.4.
In 2013, a position paper submitted by the Islamic Republic of Iran to the Third Special Session of the Conference of States Parties to Review the Operation of the Chemical Weapons Convention (Third Review Conference) on behalf of the Member States of the Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) that are States Parties to the 1993 Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC), including Zimbabwe, and China noted:
2. Preamble and international security
2.2 The NAM CWC States Parties and China reiterate their long-standing principled position for the achievement of general and complete disarmament, under strict and effective international control, including the prohibition of all weapons of mass destruction.
3. Destruction of chemical weapons and destruction or conversion of chemical weapons production facilities
3.1 The NAM CWC States Parties and China call for the destruction of all categories of chemical weapons by the possessor States Parties and reiterate the importance of the total elimination of all types of weapons of mass destruction, in line with the first preambular paragraph of the Convention.
3.5 The NAM CWC States Parties and China reiterate that the obligation and responsibility regarding the destruction of chemical weapons lie solely with the possessor States Parties, and that fulfilment of this obligation is essential to the achievement of the object and purpose of the Convention. 
Zimbabwe, Position paper submitted by Islamic Republic of Iran at the Third Special Session of the Conference of States Parties to Review the Operation of the Chemical Weapons Convention (Third Review Conference) on behalf of the Member States of the Non-Aligned Movement that are States Parties to the Chemical Weapons Convention, including Zimbabwe, and China, 8 April 2013, §§ 2.2, 3.1 and 3.5.
In 2013, in a statement at the Third Special Session of the Conference of States Parties to Review the Operation of the Chemical Weapons Convention (Third Review Conference) on behalf of the Member States of the Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) that are States Parties to the 1993 Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC), including Zimbabwe, and China, the representative of the Islamic Republic of Iran stated:
The existence of weapons of mass destruction continues to pose a threat to international peace and security. The NAM CWC States Parties and China therefore call for the general and complete disarmament under [a] strict and effective verification regime, including the prohibition and elimination of all weapons of mass destruction in line with the first preambular paragraph of the Convention.
The NAM CWC States Parties and China call for the total destruction of all categories of chemical weapons by the possessor States Parties …
It is important that the Third Review Conference call upon the major possessor States to take every necessary measure to ensure the completion of destruction of their chemical weapons stockpiles in the shortest time possible.
We further call upon all the other States Parties that possess old chemical weapons to also complete their destruction of these chemical weapons in the shortest time possible.
… [T]he NAM CWC States Parties and China are fully committed to their obligations under the Convention. We look forward to the elimination of an entire category of weapons of mass destruction in the shortest time possible. 
Zimbabwe, Statement by the representative of the Islamic Republic of Iran at the Third Special Session of the Conference of States Parties to Review the Operation of the Chemical Weapons Convention (Third Review Conference) on behalf of the Member States of the Non-Aligned Movement that are States Parties to the Chemical Weapons Convention, including Zimbabwe, and China, 8 April 2013, pp. 2, 3 and 6.
The representative of the Islamic Republic of Iran further stated:
The NAM CWC States Parties and China express their deep concern that chemical weapons may have been used in the Syrian Arab Republic. We underline that the use of chemical weapons by anyone under any circumstances would be reprehensible and completely contrary to the legal norms and standards of the international community. 
Zimbabwe, Statement by the representative of the Islamic Republic of Iran at the Third Special Session of the Conference of States Parties to Review the Operation of the Chemical Weapons Convention (Third Review Conference) on behalf of the Member States of the Non-Aligned Movement that are States Parties to the Chemical Weapons Convention, including Zimbabwe, and China, 8 April 2013, p. 4.
In 2013, in a statement at the Third Special Session of the Conference of States Parties to Review the Operation of the Chemical Weapons Convention (Third Review Conference) on behalf of the African Group of States Parties to the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC), including Zimbabwe, the representative of the Republic of the Sudan stated: “[T]he African Group of States Parties to the CWC are fully committed to their obligations under the Convention, and are looking forward to the elimination of an entire category of weapons of mass destruction in the shortest time possible.” 
Zimbabwe, Statement by the representative of the Republic of the Sudan at the Third Special Session of the Conference of States Parties to Review the Operation of the Chemical Weapons Convention (Third Review Conference) on behalf of the African Group of States Parties to the Chemical Weapons Convention, including Zimbabwe, 8 April 2013, p. 5.
In 2014, in a speech on the occasion of a workshop on the Biological and Toxin Weapons Crimes Bill, the Director of Procurement, Research and Administration in Zimbabwe’s Ministry of Defence stated:
As some of you may be aware, the Biological and Toxin Weapons Bill falls into the category of [c]hemical disarm[a]ment legislation that seeks to criminalise and prohibit the use of harmful chemicals and toxins in warfare …
This Bill seeks to domesticate the provisions of two treaties which Zimbabwe signed and ratified namely the Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production and Stockpiling of Bacteriological (Biological) and Toxin Weapons and on their Destruction of 1972 … and the Geneva Protocol [for] the Prohibition of the Use [in War] of Asphyxiating, Poisonous or Other Gases, and of Bacteriological Methods of Warfare (Geneva Protocol 1925).
It would be folly for us as Government to seek to develop our economy and allow our people to perish through the use of Weapons of Mass Destruction such as … Chemical Weapons … to mention some of them. Such economic development will be useless for as long as our people remain vulnerable to the use of such weapons in the event of armed conflict in this country. It is therefore pertinent that as we deliberate on this proposed bill, we have this at the back of our minds. We have to weigh the pros and cons of adopting this kind of legislation. 
Zimbabwe, Speech by the Director of Procurement, Research and Administration in the Ministry of Defence on the occasion of the Workshop on the Biological and Toxin Weapons Crimes Bill, 24 November 2014, pp. 3–5.
In 2015, in a statement during the Twentieth Session of the Conference of States Parties to the Chemical Weapons Convention, the representative of Zimbabwe stated:
Zimbabwe remains steadfast in its support for the principled stance regarding complete destruction of chemical weapons as fundamental and of high priority, in particular the remaining chemical weapons stockpiles. Thus, while acknowledging the progress made so far, my delegation reaffirms the need for the Possessor States to follow through their declared commitments to destroy all their chemical weapons stockpiles within the planned deadlines.
As for the effective implementation of the Convention pursuant to Article X [on Assistance and Protection against Chemical Weapons] in the context of the ever-present and complex nature of the threat of use of chemical weapons and toxic chemicals, it behoves all States Parties, especially developed countries to support greater international cooperation and capacity-building in the form of technology transfer, sharing materials and equipment for peaceful purposes. 
Zimbabwe, Statement by the representative of Zimbabwe during the Twentieth Session of the Conference of States Parties to the Chemical Weapons Convention, 30 November 2015, pp. 2 and 4–5.
In 2015, in a statement during the Twentieth Session of the Conference of States Parties to the Chemical Weapons Convention made on behalf of the Member States of the Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) that are States Parties to the 1993 Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC), including Zimbabwe, and China, the permanent representative of the Islamic Republic of Iran stated:
The existence of weapons of mass destruction continues to pose a threat to international peace and security. Consequently, the NAM CWC States Parties and China reiterate their long-standing principled position toward the achievement of general and complete disarmament, under strict and effective international control, including the prohibition and elimination of all weapons of mass destruction in line with the first paragraph of the preamble of the Convention.
The NAM CWC States Parties and China continue to underline that the use of chemical weapons and toxic chemicals as a weapon anywhere by anyone and under any circumstances is reprehensible and completely contrary to the provisions of the [1993 Chemical Weapons] Convention, legal norms and standards of the international community. We also affirm that those responsible for the use of chemical weapons should be held accountable.
The NAM CWC States Parties and China stress that the total destruction of chemical weapons stockpiles, old chemical weapons and abandoned chemical weapons, is a fundamental pillar of the Convention.
Noting with serious concern that the final extended deadline (29 April 2012) for the destruction of chemical weapons was not met by certain possessor States Parties, the NAM CWC States Parties and China stress that the destruction of chemical weapons is the fundamental and top priority of the Organisation and urge all possessor States Parties to take all necessary measures to ensure their compliance with the provisions of the Convention and relevant decisions of the policy-making organs.
In this regard, we welcome the anticipated completion of destruction of the remaining chemical weapons in four chemical weapons destruction facilities in the Russian Federation by the end of 2015.
We also wish to emphasise the determination expressed by the Third Review Conference that the destruction of all categories of chemical weapons, namely old chemical weapons, abandoned chemical weapons and chemical weapons stockpiles shall be completed in the shortest possible time in accordance with the provisions of the Convention and its Annex on Implementation and Verification, and with the full application of the relevant decisions adopted by the policy-making organs.
We welcome the visit by the Chairperson and representatives of the Executive Council to the Haerbaling abandoned chemical weapons [ACWs] destruction site in China in June 2015. We believe such visits facilitate the Council to obtain a better understanding and assist in the process of the destruction of the ACWs.
The NAM CWC States Parties and China attach great importance to the universality of the Convention and we welcome Myanmar and Angola as the new States Parties to the Convention. In this regard we hereby strongly call on remaining States not Party to the Convention to accede to it without further delay and preconditions. We also emphasise that states remaining outside the Convention should not be able to take advantage of any of the benefits it offers to the States Parties.
Recalling the decisions of the Executive Council at its meetings with respect to the elimination and destruction of the Syrian chemical weapons and welcoming the cooperation of the Syrian Arab Republic regarding the implementation of the relevant Executive Council decisions towards the elimination of its chemical weapons, the NAM CWC States Parties and China welcome the significant progress achieved in the elimination of the Syrian chemical weapons and in the destruction of the chemical weapons production facilities.
While paying due respect to all chemical weapons victims and their families, the NAM CWC States Parties and China, in light of the decision adopted by the Conference of the States Parties at its Sixteenth Session (C-16/DEC.13, dated 2 December 2011), appreciate the States Parties and the Director-General who contributed to the Trust Fund for the International Support Network for Victims of Chemical Weapons. We welcome the activation and activities of the International Support Network for Victims of Chemical Weapons and encourage the States Parties to contribute to its Voluntary Trust Fund.
The NAM CWC States Parties and China encourage the States Parties to facilitate and make materials and equipment-related assistance available to other States Parties and to assist and support the victims of chemical weapons, without undue restrictions.
With regard to the future priorities of the Organisation, the NAM CWC States Parties and China believe that the main focus of the Organisation should remain the complete elimination of all categories of chemical weapons. We will take active part in the discussions to be held in this regard from a constructive position, with a strong belief that all pillars of the Convention would be treated in a balanced manner, including the ones related to international cooperation, assistance and protection issues, amongst others.
The NAM CWC States Parties and China are deeply concerned about recent reports on the use of chemical weapons and toxic chemicals in terrorist attacks and call upon the Technical Secretariat to investigate all reports on the use of chemical weapons and to keep the States Parties informed about steps taken. 
Zimbabwe, Statement by the permanent representative of the Islamic Republic of Iran during the Twentieth Session of the Conference of States Parties to the Chemical Weapons Convention made on behalf of the Member States of the Non-Aligned Movement that are States Parties to the Chemical Weapons Convention, including Zimbabwe, and China, 30 November 2015, pp. 1–2 and 4–5.
I was recently appointed as a Cabinet Minister of Welfare Services for War Veterans, War Collaborators, Ex-Political Detainees and Restrictees in Zimbabwe. Hundreds of these men and women are victims of chemical warfare attacks using napalm by the then illegal Rhodesian Security Forces and their allies. At the end of the war, nothing was done to heal their horrendous physical and psychological wounds. With the little resources that the new Zimbabwe had, the facility that had previously manufactured the napalm was converted into a fertiliser production company. However, the welfare of the hundreds of victims of chemical warfare was neglected. I am sure there are several examples of such victims especially in the Southern African region, which was the theatre of chemical warfare waged by both Rhodesia and the then apartheid state of South Africa. Efforts to address the treatment and welfare of these victims of chemical warfare are long overdue.
There is an emerging threat of the use of chemicals in the destruction of wildlife and the environment by poachers in Zimbabwe. Although the poachers plying the illegal ivory trade use Cyanide to kill elephants, it is a dangerous use of chemistry for the wholesale destruction of wildlife and only a step away from the use of Cyanide by a criminal organisation against people. This is a grey area for our organisation - given the legal definition of a chemical weapon, especially for napalm. Although this is a grey area for the CWC [Chemical Weapons Convention of 13 January 1993], is this a situation that the CWC can afford to ignore? There are recent examples of the use of chemical weapons made out of readily available chemicals that have been used on human beings. Chlorine is a good example. This must make us all take new notice of what a controlled substance or its precursor is before we have Cyanide weaponised in this time of asymmetrical warfare.
… We … urge this organisation to tackle the growing problem of the use of Cyanide or any other such chemicals which are readily available before they find their way to a war against human beings in war zones.
My delegation is pleased with the progress made towards achieving universality of the Convention and in particular the strong show by African countries. We commend the Secretariat for its efforts in this regard and hope that the remaining non-States Parties to the Chemical Weapons Convention will join the global consensus against chemical weapons. 
Zimbabwe, Statement by the Minister of Welfare Affairs for War Veterans, War Collaborators, and Former Political Prisoners and Restrictees of Zimbabwe during the Twenty-First Session of the Conference of the States Parties to the Chemical Weapons Convention, The Hague, Netherlands, 30 November 2016, pp. 4—6.