Practice Relating to Rule 142. Instruction in International Humanitarian Law within Armed Forces
At the 27th International Conference of the Red Cross and Red Crescent in 1999, Thailand pledged “to ensure that International Humanitarian Law and its Principles are integrated into the educational and training programme of armed forces”.
In 2009, in its initial report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child under the Optional Protocol on the Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict, Thailand stated:
13. (2) Appointment of the Sub-Committee for the Dissemination of International Humanitarian and Human Rights Laws in the Military Curricula. The Ministry of Defense approved the Ministerial Regulations (Specific) No. 143/43 appointing the Sub-Committee for the Dissemination of International Humanitarian and Human Rights Laws in the Military Curricula, responsible for the following:
(1) Dissemination and integration of international humanitarian laws (including laws concerning armed conflict or war) and human rights subjects into all levels of the military training curricula; and updating and standardizing the curricula;
(2) Reviewing the appropriateness of the law curricula on armed conflict and human rights currently used by educational institutes, in regards to their contents, facilitators, lecturers, complementary materials, teaching methods and resources;
(3) Evaluating teaching results;
(4) Making recommendations on necessary revision of teaching and learning methods for human rights and armed conflict laws, in keeping with the present reality;
(6) Coordinating and collaborating with relevant agencies, both at the national and international levels;
14. (1) Training for observation missions. A 112-hour training course is provided to soldiers who are due to travel on observation missions abroad, focusing on improving knowledge and understanding of the concepts and principles of international and human rights organizations and laws, including: the United Nations and its agencies, the United Nations Charter, principles of peacekeeping, negotiation and mediation techniques, law of armed conflict/human rights, humanitarian assistance, the role of the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC), etc.
15. (2) Peacekeeping training. A 40-hour training course is provided to soldiers prior to their departures on peacekeeping missions, covering general concepts and principles of peacekeeping, such as reinforcement strategy, the ICRC role, rules of engagement and conflict management.
16. (3) Sensitization and training on the Convention and the Optional Protocol. Training is organized by such agencies as the Ministries of Interior, Education, Justice, Labour, Public Health, Social Development and Human Security; the Office of the General-Attorney; the Royal Thai Police; and non-governmental organizations, such as Holt Sahathai, the Foundation for Child Development; the Centre for the Protection of Child Rights Foundation, and the Buddhist Youth for Development Foundation. The Convention and its Optional Protocol have been incorporated into both general training curricula on child rights and specialized training.
B.2. International instruments ratified by Thailand
48. International instruments relevant to the issue of the involvement of children in armed conflict to which Thailand is a State party include the following:
(1) Convention for the Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded in Armies in the Field. Geneva, 22 August 1864;
(2) Convention (II) with Respect to the Laws and Customs of War on Land and its annex: Regulations concerning the Laws and Customs of War on Land. The Hague, 29 July 1899;
(3) Convention (III) for the Adaptation to Maritime Warfare of the Principles of the Geneva Convention of 22 August 1864. The Hague, 29 July 1899;
(4) Declaration (IV,1), to Prohibit, for the Term of Five Years, the Launching of Projectiles and Explosives from Balloons, and Other Methods of Similar Nature. The Hague, 29 July 1899;
(5) Declaration (IV,2) concerning Asphyxiating Gases. The Hague, 29 July 1899;
(6) Declaration (IV,3) concerning Expanding Bullets. The Hague, 29 July 1899;
(7) Convention for the Exemption of Hospital Ships, in Time of War, from the Payment of all Dues and Taxes Imposed for the Benefit of the State. The Hague, 21 December 1904;
(8) Convention for the Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded and Sick in Armies in the Field. Geneva, 6 July 1906;
(9) Convention (III) relative to the Opening of Hostilities. The Hague, 18 October 1907;
(10) Convention (IV) respecting the Laws and Customs of War on Land and its annex: Regulations concerning the Laws and Customs of War on Land. The Hague, 18 October 1907;
(11) Convention (V) respecting the Rights and Duties of Neutral Powers and Persons in Case of War on Land. The Hague, 18 October 1907;
(12) Convention (VI) relating to the Status of Enemy Merchant Ships at the Outbreak of Hostilities. The Hague, 18 October 1907;
(13) Convention (VII) relating to the Conversion of Merchant Ships into War-Ships. The Hague, 18 October 1907;
(14) Convention (VIII) relative to the Laying of Automatic Submarine Contact Mines. The Hague, 18 October 1907;
(15) Convention (IX) concerning Bombardment by Naval Forces in Time of War. The Hague, 18 October 1907;
(16) Convention (X) for the Adaptation to Maritime Warfare of the Principles of the Geneva Convention. The Hague, 18 October 1907;
(17) Convention (XI) relative to certain Restrictions with regard to the Exercise of the Right of Capture in Naval War. The Hague, 18 October 1907;
(18) Convention (XIII) concerning the Rights and Duties of Neutral Powers in Naval War. The Hague, 18 October 1907;
(19) Declaration (XIV) Prohibiting the Discharge of Projectiles and Explosives from Balloons. The Hague, 18 October 1907;
(20) Protocol for the Prohibition of the Use of Asphyxiating, Poisonous or Other Gases, and of Bacteriological Methods of Warfare. Geneva, 17 June 1925;
(21) Convention for the Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded and Sick in Armies in the Field. Geneva, 27 July 1929;
(22) Convention relative to the Treatment of Prisoners of War. Geneva, 27 July 1929;
(23) Procès-verbal relating to the Rules of Submarine Warfare set forth in Part IV of the Treaty of London of 22 April 1930. London, 6 November 1936;
(24) The four Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, concerning the protection of the wounded and sick in armed forces in the field; wounded, sick and shipwrecked members of armed forces at sea; prisoners of war; and civilians who find themselves under the rule of a foreign power in the event of international conflict;
(25) Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict. The Hague, 14 May 1954;
(26) Protocol for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict. The Hague, 14 May 1954;
(27) Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production and Stockpiling of Bacteriological (Biological) and Toxin Weapons and on their Destruction. Opened for Signature at London, Moscow and Washington. 10 April 1972;
(28) Convention on the prohibition of the development, production, stockpiling and use of chemical weapons and on their destruction, Paris 13 January 1993;
(29) Convention on the Prohibition of the Use, Stockpiling, Production and Transfer of Anti-Personnel Mines and on their Destruction, 18 September 1997.
50. Efforts have been made to raise awareness of Thailand’s personnel on the importance of these treaties and obligations, through the dissemination of video on laws concerning armed conflict and rules of engagement, and regular training.