Practice Relating to Rule 6. Civilians’ Loss of Protection from Attack
Section A. Direct participation in hostilities
The Russian Federation’s Regulations on the Application of IHL (2001) states:
Civilians shall enjoy the protection afforded by Paragraph 54 of the present Regulations [prohibiting attacks directed against civilians and indiscriminate attacks as well as requiring precautions to be taken in attack], unless and for such time as they take part in hostilities.
With regard to internal armed conflict, the Regulations states:
The civilian population and individual civilians shall enjoy general protection against the dangers arising from military operations. The civilian population as such, as well as individual civilians, shall not be the object of attack … Civilians shall enjoy the protection, unless and for such time as they take a direct part in hostilities.
The Russian Federation’s Combat Manual (2005) states:
Persons and objects entitled to protection under international humanitarian law may not be attacked, if these persons are not engaged in hostile actions, and the objects are not used (nor prepared to be used) for military purposes.