Practice Relating to Rule 102. Individual Criminal Responsibility
The Military Manual (1993) of the Netherlands reproduces the prohibition of collective punishments found in Article 75 of the 1977 Additional Protocol I and Article 4 of the 1977 Additional Protocol II.
With respect to non-international armed conflict, the manual states: “Nobody may be condemned but on the basis of individual criminal responsibility.”
The Military Manual (2005) of the Netherlands states:
Every human being is entitled to personal safety.
- No one may be held responsible for a deed he has not committed.
- Reprisals, collective punishments … are forbidden.
In its chapter on the protection of the civilian population, the manual states: “No protected person may be punished for an offence he has not personally committed.”