Norma relacionada
Italy
Practice Relating to Rule 65. Perfidy
Italy’s LOAC Elementary Rules Manual (1991) states: “It is prohibited to feign a protected status by inviting the confidence of the enemy.” 
Italy, Regole elementari di diritto di guerra, SMD-G-012, Stato Maggiore della Difesa, I Reparto, Ufficio Addestramento e Regolamenti, Rome, 1991, § 46.
Italy’s IHL Manual (1991) provides that is prohibited to kill or injure an enemy by treachery. 
Italy, Manuale di diritto umanitario, Introduzione e Volume I, Usi e convenzioni di Guerra, SMD-G-014, Stato Maggiore della Difesa, I Reparto, Ufficio Addestramento e Regolamenti, Rome, 1991, Vol. I, § 8(2).
Italy’s Law of War Decree (1938), as amended in 1992, states that it is prohibited to kill or injure an enemy by treachery. 
Italy, Law of War Decree, 1938, as amended in 1992, Article 35(2).
Italy’s LOAC Elementary Rules Manual (1991) states: “It is prohibited to feign a protected status by inviting the confidence of the enemy: … feigning … to be hors de combat because of wounds or sickness.” 
Italy, Regole elementari di diritto di guerra, SMD-G-012, Stato Maggiore della Difesa, I Reparto, Ufficio Addestramento e Regolamenti, Rome, 1991, § 46.
Under Italy’s IHL Manual (1991), grave breaches of international conventions and protocols, including “the perfidious use … of international protective signs”, constitute war crimes. 
Italy, Manuale di diritto umanitario, Introduzione e Volume I, Usi e convenzioni di Guerra, SMD-G-014, Stato Maggiore della Difesa, I Reparto, Ufficio Addestramento e Regolamenti, Rome, 1991, Vol. I, § 85.
Italy’s LOAC Elementary Rules Manual (1991) states: “It is prohibited to feign a protected status by inviting the confidence of the enemy: … feigning of surrender.” 
Italy, Regole elementari di diritto di guerra, SMD-G-012, Stato Maggiore della Difesa, I Reparto, Ufficio Addestramento e Regolamenti, Rome, 1991, § 46.
Italy’s Combatant’s Manual (1998) states:
Parlementaires, i.e. those who request to meet with the Commanding Officer of the enemy unit to discuss a ceasefire or to surrender, are protected by the “White flag”.
IT IS PROHIBITED to deceive the enemy by raising a white flag and then opening fire. 
Italy, Manuale del Combattente, SME 1000/A/2, Stato Maggiore Esercito/Reparto Impiego delle Forze, Ufficio Dottrina, Addestramento e Regolamenti, 1998, § 247.
[emphasis in original]
Under Italy’s IHL Manual (1991), grave breaches of international conventions and protocols, including “the perfidious use … of international protective signs”, constitute war crimes. 
Italy, Manuale di diritto umanitario, Introduzione e Volume I, Usi e convenzioni di Guerra, SMD-G-014, Stato Maggiore della Difesa, I Reparto, Ufficio Addestramento e Regolamenti, Rome, 1991, Vol. I, § 85.
Italy’s LOAC Elementary Rules Manual (1991) states: “It is prohibited to feign a protected status by inviting the confidence of the enemy: misuse of … the flag of truce.” 
Italy, Regole elementari di diritto di guerra, SMD-G-012, Stato Maggiore della Difesa, I Reparto, Ufficio Addestramento e Regolamenti, Rome, 1991, § 46.
Italy’s Combatant’s Manual (1998) states:
Parlementaires, i.e. those who request to meet with the Commanding Officer of the enemy unit to discuss a ceasefire or to surrender, are protected by the “White flag”.
IT IS PROHIBITED to deceive the enemy by raising a white flag and then opening fire. 
Italy, Manuale del Combattente, SME 1000/A/2, Stato Maggiore Esercito/Reparto Impiego delle Forze, Ufficio Dottrina, Addestramento e Regolamenti, 1998, § 247.
[emphasis in original]
Italy’s IHL Manual (1991) states that grave breaches of international conventions and protocols, including “the perfidious use … of international protective signs”, constitute war crimes. 
Italy, Manuale di diritto umanitario, Introduzione e Volume I, Usi e convenzioni di Guerra, SMD-G-014, Stato Maggiore della Difesa, I Reparto, Ufficio Addestramento e Regolamenti, Rome, 1991, Vol. I, § 85.
Italy’s LOAC Elementary Rules Manual (1991) states: “It is prohibited to feign a protected status by inviting the confidence of the enemy: misuse of distinctive signs.” 
Italy, Regole elementari di diritto di guerra, SMD-G-012, Stato Maggiore della Difesa, I Reparto, Ufficio Addestramento e Regolamenti, Rome, 1991, § 46.
Italy’s Combatant’s Manual (1998) states:
The use of protective emblems as “cover” for belligerent actions or to harm the enemy in any way constitutes an ACT OF PERFIDY, which is a serious violation of International Law and severely punished by the Wartime Military Penal Code. 
Italy, Manuale del Combattente, SME 1000/A/2, Stato Maggiore Esercito/Reparto Impiego delle Forze, Ufficio Dottrina, Addestramento e Regolamenti, 1998, § 241.
[emphasis in original]
Under Italy’s IHL Manual (1991), grave breaches of international conventions and protocols, including “the perfidious use … of international protective signs”, constitute war crimes. 
Italy, Manuale di diritto umanitario, Introduzione e Volume I, Usi e convenzioni di Guerra, SMD-G-014, Stato Maggiore della Difesa, I Reparto, Ufficio Addestramento e Regolamenti, Rome, 1991, Vol. I, § 85.
Italy’s LOAC Elementary Rules Manual (1991) states: “It is prohibited to feign a protected status by inviting the confidence of the enemy: misuse of distinctive signs.” 
Italy, Regole elementari di diritto di guerra, SMD-G-012, Stato Maggiore della Difesa, I Reparto, Ufficio Addestramento e Regolamenti, Rome, 1991, § 46.
Italy’s Combatant’s Manual (1998) states:
The use of protective emblems as “cover” for belligerent actions or to harm the enemy in any way constitutes an ACT OF PERFIDY, which is a serious violation of International Law and severely punished by the Wartime Military Penal Code.
Protective emblems are used for:
-UN personnel, equipment and facilities. 
Italy, Manuale del Combattente, SME 1000/A/2, Stato Maggiore Esercito/Reparto Impiego delle Forze, Ufficio Dottrina, Addestramento e Regolamenti, 1998, § 241.
[emphasis in original]
Italy’s IHL Manual (1991) provides that grave breaches of international conventions and protocols, among which “the perfidious use … of symbols of international protection” constitute war crimes. 
Italy, Manuale di diritto umanitario, Introduzione e Volume I, Usi e convenzioni di Guerra, SMD-G-014, Stato Maggiore della Difesa, I Reparto, Ufficio Addestramento e Regolamenti, Rome, 1991, Vol. I, § 85.
Italy’s LOAC Elementary Rules Manual (1991) states: “It is prohibited to feign a protected status by inviting the confidence of the enemy: misuse of distinctive signs.” 
Italy, Regole elementari di diritto di guerra, SMD-G-012, Stato Maggiore della Difesa, I Reparto, Ufficio Addestramento e Regolamenti, Rome, 1991, § 46.
Italy’s Combatant’s Manual (1998) states:
The use of protective emblems as “cover” for belligerent actions or to harm the enemy in any way constitutes an ACT OF PERFIDY, which is a serious violation of International Law and severely punished by the Wartime Military Penal Code.
Protective emblems are used for:
-Medical personnel, equipment and facilities, and medical and military religious support personnel; …
-Civil Defence personnel, equipment and facilities;
-Cultural objects and the personnel responsible for their care;
-Works and installations containing dangerous forces;
-Hospital and safety zones;
-Parlementaires. 
Italy, Manuale del Combattente, SME 1000/A/2, Stato Maggiore Esercito/Reparto Impiego delle Forze, Ufficio Dottrina, Addestramento e Regolamenti, 1998, § 244.
[emphasis in original]
Italy’s LOAC Elementary Rules Manual (1991) states: “It is prohibited to feign to belong to a protected category to invite the confidence of the enemy.” 
Italy, Regole elementari di diritto di guerra, SMD-G-012, Stato Maggiore della Difesa, I Reparto, Ufficio Addestramento e Regolamenti, Rome, 1991, § 46.