Practice Relating to Rule 147. Reprisals against Protected Objects
Section A. Civilian objects in general
Italy’s IHL Manual (1991), providing for the prohibition of reprisals against, inter alia
, “protected civilian persons” and “protected persons and property”, states: “The observance of international rules which expressly provide for the obligation to abide by them in any circumstances cannot be suspended by way of reprisals.”
Italy’s Combatant’s Manual (1998) instructs: “[D]o not engage in reprisals”.
Italy’s Law of War Decree (1938), as amended in 1992, states: “Respect for rules adopted in order to comply with international conventions which expressly exclude reprisals cannot be suspended.”
Upon ratification of the 1977 Additional Protocol I, Italy stated:
Italy will react to serious and systematic violations by an enemy of the obligations imposed by Additional Protocol I and in particular its Articles 51 and 52 with all means admissible under international law in order to prevent any further violation.