Islamic Republic of Iran
Practice Relating to Rule 20. Advance Warning
According to the Report on the Practice of the Islamic Republic of Iran, during the Iran-Iraq War:
The Iranian authorities have followed a steady practice of warning the civilian population of the cities before attacking. In this regard, before each bombardment, statements of the war information center or military communiqués were issued which asked the civilian population to leave the cities. Usually the name of the cities to be attacked were listed, and the civilians were asked to take refuge to four holy cities of Karbala, Najaf, Kazemein and Samera.
The report concludes that “the opinio juris
of Iran is supportive of precautions in attack, and in practice the warnings can be considered as application of these precautions”.