Practice Relating to Rule 129. The Act of Displacement
Section B. Evacuation of the civilian population
Ireland’s Basic LOAC Guide (2005) states:
[T]he civilian population may not be compelled to remain in a dangerous military area except where they would meet a greater danger by moving elsewhere; or a move cannot be allowed because it would interfere seriously with military operations (e.g. there are urgent military reasons for keeping the roads open). … Additionally, civilians may be temporarily evacuated for imperative military reasons or their own safety if the evacuation can be safely done.
Ireland’s Geneva Conventions Act (1962), as amended in 1998, provides that any “minor breach” of the 1977 Additional Protocol I, including violations of Article 78(1), as well as any “contravention” of the 1977 Additional Protocol II, including violations of Article 17(1), are punishable offences.