Practice Relating to Rule 38. Attacks against Cultural Property
Indonesia’s Air Force Manual (1990) provides that “places of worship, cultural objects and places used for humanitarian purposes must not be attacked nor made the target of air bombardment, unless they are used for military purposes and that there is no obvious sign of such objects”.
The manual does not refer to any specific level of protection for cultural property, but states: “It is prohibited to destroy cultural objects and places of worship.”
At the CDDH, Indonesia voted against Article 20 bis
of the draft Additional Protocol II (now Article 16) but explained that this “should not be interpreted as meaning that [the Indonesian] Government is against the principles contained in this article that historic monuments or works of art should be protected”.