United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
Practice Relating to Rule 102. Individual Criminal Responsibility
The UK Military Manual (1958) states:
The Hague Rules forbid collective punishment, in the form of a general pecuniary or other penalty, of the population for acts of individuals for which the population as a whole cannot be regarded as jointly and severally responsible. It was formerly thought that the prohibition did not exclude reprisals against a locality or community for some act committed by its inhabitants or members who cannot be identified. However, the Civilian Convention, Art. 33 has prohibited collective penalties and has expressly adopted the principle that “no protected person may be punished for an offence he or she has not personally committed”.
The UK LOAC Manual (2004) states in its chapter on the protection of civilians in the hands of a party to the conflict:
In the case of penal offences relating to the armed conflict, the basic principles of natural justice must be observed … These principles include the following: … no one shall be convicted of an offence except on the basis of individual penal responsibility.
In its chapter on internal armed conflict, the manual further states: “Indispensable judicial guarantees include as a minimum … individual criminal responsibility (so that collective punishments would be unlawful).”