Practice Relating to Rule 147. Reprisals against Protected Objects
Section E. Natural environment
Germany’s Military Manual (1992), referring to Article 55(2) of the 1977 Additional Protocol I, provides: “It is expressly prohibited by agreement to make reprisals against: … the natural environment.”
Germany’s IHL Manual (1996) provides: “Reprisals are expressly prohibited against … the natural environment”.
In 1990, in a parliamentary debate on the ratification of the 1977 Additional Protocols, a member of the German Parliament called the prohibition of reprisals as contained in the Additional Protocol I “newly introduced rules”.
Upon ratification of the 1977 Additional Protocol I, Germany declared:
The Federal Republic of Germany will react against serious and systematic violations of the obligations imposed by Additional Protocol I … with all means admissible under international law in order to prevent any further violation.