Norma relacionada
Côte d’Ivoire
Practice Relating to Rule 146. Reprisals against Protected Persons
Section D. Civilians in the power of the adversary
Côte d’Ivoire’s Teaching Manual (2007) provides in Book III, Volume 2 (Instruction of second-year trainee officers):
Lesson 2. Protection
Geneva Convention IV prohibits using the civilian population as a shield …
Pillage, hostage-taking and reprisal measures against civilians are equally prohibited.
Lesson 3. Obligations and responsibilities
III.1. Collective responsibility
Customary law regarded measures of reprisal taken by a belligerent party as one of the lawful means intended to enforce the application of the law.
However, since these measures often led to an escalation of the violence and generally struck persons who were not the true culprits, the law of reprisals of belligerent parties has progressively been restricted. Thus, reprisal measures against protected persons and objects are the subject of an express prohibition in the four 1949 Geneva Conventions. 
Côte d’Ivoire, Droit de la guerre, Manuel d’instruction, Livre III, Tome 2: Instruction de l’élève officier d’active de 2ème année, Manuel de l’instructeur, Ministère de la Défense, Forces Armées Nationales, November 2007, pp. 21, 35 and 37–38.