Norma relacionada
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Practice Relating to Rule 96. Hostage-Taking
The Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina’s Criminal Code (1998) provides that hostage-taking is a war crime. 
Bosnia and Herzegovina, Federation, Criminal Code, 1998, Article 154(1).
The Republic Srpska’s Criminal Code (2000) contains the same provision. 
Bosnia and Herzegovina, Republika Srpska, Criminal Code, 2000, Article 433(1).
Bosnia and Herzegovina’s Criminal Code (2003) states that, in time of war, armed conflict or occupation, ordering or committing the “taking of hostages”, in violation of international law, constitutes a war crime. 
Bosnia and Herzegovina, Criminal Code, 2003, Article 173(1)(e).
The Criminal Code also states:
Whoever unlawfully confines, keeps confined or in some other manner deprives another person of freedom of movement, or restricts it in some way, or seizes or detains and threatens to kill, to injure or to continue to detain as a hostage, with an aim to compel a State or an international intergovernmental organization, to perform or to abstain from performing any act as an explicit or implicit condition for the release of a hostage,
shall be punished by imprisonment for a term of between one and ten years. 
Bosnia and Herzegovina, Criminal Code, 2003, Article 191(1).
The Criminal Code, as amended in 2004, further states:
Whoever unlawfully confines, keeps confined or in some other manner deprives an internationally protected person of freedom of movement, or restricts it in some way, with the aim to force him or some other person to do or to omit or to bear something, or perpetrates some other violence against such a person or his liberty … likely to endanger his person or liberty,
shall be punished by imprisonment for a term of between one and ten years. 
Bosnia and Herzegovina, Criminal Code, 2003, as amended in 2004, Article 192(1).
In 2006, in the Maktouf case, the Appellate Panel of the Court of Bosnia and Herzegovina, in sentencing the accused for a war crime against civilians in violation of common Article 3 of the 1949 Geneva Conventions, defined a hostage as:
… any person seized or detained and threatened to be killed, to be injured or continually detained by another person in order to compel a third party, namely, a State, an international intergovernmental organization, a natural or juridical person, or a group of persons, to do or abstain from doing any act as an explicit or implicit condition for the release of the hostage. 
Bosnia and Herzegovina, Court of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Maktouf case, Judgment, 4 April 2006, p. 10.