Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
Practice Relating to Rule 74. Chemical Weapons
In 1970, in the context of the adoption of UN General Assembly Resolution 2444 (XXIII), the USSR stated:
The use of asphyxiating, poisonous and tear gases and other gases of a similar nature … was prohibited by the Geneva Protocol of 17 June 1925. The United States signed that Protocol, but did not ratify it. However, that does not mean that the prohibition of the use of poisonous substances does not extend to the United States. That prohibition has become a generally recognized rule of international law, and countries which violate it must bear responsibility before the international community.
In 1970, during a debate in the Third Committee of the UN General Assembly, the USSR stated that the 1925 Geneva Gas Protocol was fully applicable in situations where freedom fighters struggled for liberation against colonial powers.
At the CSCE review meeting in Madrid in 1982, when the US delegation accused the USSR of violating the 1925 Geneva Gas Protocol, the Soviet delegation rejected the charges as “monstrous accusations, false from beginning to end” and denied that the USSR had ever used chemical weapons “anywhere under any circumstances or by any means”.
In 1987, during a debate in the First Committee of the UN General Assembly, the USSR strongly supported the global elimination of chemical weapons.
In 1989, in reply to a note verbale of the UN Secretary-General on the subject of chemical weapons, the USSR declared: “It had never used chemical weapons or stockpiled them on foreign territories. It had stopped production of chemical weapons.”
In 1991, during a debate in the UN Security Council on the situation between Iraq and Kuwait, the USSR stated with respect to Resolution 687 (1991):
The most acute issue is that of creating an effective barrier against the use of weapons of mass destruction in that region. From that viewpoint, of great importance are the provisions in the resolution regarding Iraq’s destruction of chemical … weapons … and in the context of Iraq’s confirmation of its obligations of the Geneva [Gas] Protocol of 1925 to bring into play the International Atomic Energy Agency … It is also important that all Middle Eastern countries accede to … those international agreements prohibiting chemical … weapons.