Practice relating to Rule 66. Non-Hostile Contacts between the Parties to the Conflict

Hague Regulations (1899)
Article 32 of the 1899 Hague Regulations states: “An individual is considered as a parlementaire who is authorized by one of the belligerents to enter into communication with the other, and who carries a white flag.” 
Regulations concerning the Laws and Customs of War on Land, annexed to Convention (II) with Respect to the Laws and Customs of War on Land, The Hague, 29 July 1899, Article 32.
Hague Regulations (1907)
Article 32 of the 1907 Hague Regulations states: “A person is regarded as a parlementaire who has been authorized by one of the belligerents to enter into communication with the other, and who advances bearing a white flag.” 
Regulations concerning the Laws and Customs of War on Land, annexed to Convention (IV) respecting the Laws and Customs of War on Land, The Hague, 18 October 1907, Article 32.
Brussels Declaration
Article 43 of the 1874 Brussels Declaration provides: “A person is regarded as a parlementaire who has been authorized by one of the belligerents to enter into communication with the other, and who advances bearing a white flag.” 
Project of an International Declaration concerning the Laws and Customs of War, Brussels, 27 August 1874, Article 43.
Oxford Manual
Article 27 of the 1880 Oxford Manual states: “A person is regarded as a parlementaire who has been authorized by one of the belligerents to enter into communication with the other, and who advances bearing a white flag.” 
The Laws of War on Land, adopted by the Institute of International Law, Oxford, 9 September 1880, Article 27.
Oxford Manual of Naval War
Article 45 of the 1913 Oxford Manual of Naval War provides: “A ship authorized by one of the belligerents to enter into a parley with the other and carrying a white flag is considered a cartel ship.” 
The Laws of Naval War Governing the Relations between Belligerents, adopted by the Institute of International Law, Oxford, 9 August 1913, Article 45.
Argentina
Argentina’s Law of War Manual (1969) defines a parlementaire as “an individual authorized by one of the belligerents to enter into communication with the other and who advances bearing a white flag”. 
Argentina, Leyes de Guerra, RC-46-1, Público, II Edición 1969, Ejército Argentino, Edición original aprobado por el Comandante en Jefe del Ejército, 9 May 1967, § 6.001.
Belgium
Belgium’s Field Regulations (1964) defines a parlementaire as a person “who has been authorized by one of the belligerents to enter into communication with the other, and who advances bearing a white flag”. 
Belgium, Règlement sur le Service en Campagne, Règlement IF 47, Ministère de la Défense Nationale, Etat-Major Général, Force Terrestre, Direction Supérieure de la Tactique, Direction Générale du Planning, Entraînement et Organisation, 1964, § 22.
Belgium
Belgium’s Law of War Manual (1983) defines a parlementaire as “the person authorized by a belligerent to enter into communication with the adversary and who advances bearing a white flag (at night a white light)”. 
Belgium, Droit Pénal et Disciplinaire Militaire et Droit de la Guerre, Deuxième Partie, Droit de la Guerre, Ecole Royale Militaire, par J. Maes, Chargé de cours, Avocat-général près la Cour Militaire, D/1983/1187/029, 1983, p. 40.
Belgium
Belgium’s Teaching Manual for Officers states: “A parlementaire is a person who advances bearing a white flag, in order to negotiate.” 
Belgium, Droit de la Guerre, Dossier d’Instruction pour Soldat, à l’attention des officiers instructeurs, JS3, Etat-Major Général, Forces Armées belges, undated, Part I, Title II, p. 25.
Cameroon
Cameroon’s Disciplinary Regulations (1975) states: “Any person who advances without weapons and displaying the white flag shall be considered as a parlementaire.” 
Cameroon, Règlement de discipline dans les Forces Armées, Décret No. 75/700, 6 November 1975, Article 30.
Cameroon
Cameroon’s Disciplinary Regulations (2007) states:
Article 30: Definition
Any person who advances without weapons and displaying the white flag shall be considered a parlementaire; he enjoys an absolute immunity and it is prohibited to attack him or retain him prisoner. 
Cameroon, Règlement de discipline générale dans les forces de défense, Décret N° 2007/199, Président de la République, 7 July 2007, Article 30.
Canada
Under Canada’s LOAC Manual (1999), parlementaires are intermediaries by whom negotiations between belligerent commanders may be conducted. 
Canada, The Law of Armed Conflict at the Operational and Tactical Level, Office of the Judge Advocate General, 1999, p. 14-1, § 3.
Canada
Canada’s LOAC Manual (2001) states in its chapter entitled “Communications and contact between opposing forces”:
1. Negotiations between belligerent commanders may be conducted by intermediaries known as parlementaires. The wish to negotiate by parlementaires is frequently indicated by the raising of a white flag, but any other method of communication such as radios may be employed.
2. Parlementaires normally operate under a white flag of truce. A parlementaire may be accompanied by other personnel agreed upon by the commanders involved. 
Canada, The Law of Armed Conflict at the Operational and Tactical Levels, Office of the Judge Advocate General, 13 August 2001, § 1402.1–2.
Germany
Germany’s Military Manual (1992) states:
A cessation of hostilities is regularly preceded by negotiations with the adversary. In the area of operations the parties to the conflict frequently use parlementaires for this purpose … Parlementaires are persons authorized by one party to the conflict to enter into negotiations with the adversary. 
Germany, Humanitarian Law in Armed Conflicts – Manual, DSK VV207320067, edited by The Federal Ministry of Defence of the Federal Republic of Germany, VR II 3, August 1992, English translation of ZDv 15/2, Humanitäres Völkerrecht in bewaffneten KonfliktenHandbuch, August 1992, §§ 222 and 223.
The manual adds: “Defectors or members of friendly forces taken prisoner by the adversary have no status as parlementaires nor as persons accompanying parlementaires.” 
Germany, Humanitarian Law in Armed Conflicts – Manual, DSK VV207320067, edited by The Federal Ministry of Defence of the Federal Republic of Germany, VR II 3, August 1992, English translation of ZDv 15/2, Humanitäres Völkerrecht in bewaffneten KonfliktenHandbuch, August 1992, § 225.
Italy
Italy’s IHL Manual (1991) defines a parlementaire as:
a person authorized by a military belligerent authority to enter into direct communication with the enemy; the scope of his powers is usually to conclude specific agreements to be executed on the battlefield. The parlementaire … must advance bearing a visible distinctive sign consisting of a white flag. 
Italy, Manuale di diritto umanitario, Introduzione e Volume I, Usi e convenzioni di Guerra, SMD-G-014, Stato Maggiore della Difesa, I Reparto, Ufficio Addestramento e Regolamenti, Rome, 1991, Vol. I, § 51.
The manual adds that the authorization for a parlementaire to enter into negotiations must be in writing. 
Italy, Manuale di diritto umanitario, Introduzione e Volume I, Usi e convenzioni di Guerra, SMD-G-014, Stato Maggiore della Difesa, I Reparto, Ufficio Addestramento e Regolamenti, Rome, 1991, Vol. I, § 52.
The manual further emphasizes the importance of the use of parlementaires in the context of peacekeeping operations, not only for the safeguard of human life, but also to prevent or rapidly put an end to possible incidents, especially those involving the use of arms. 
Italy, Manuale di diritto umanitario, Introduzione e Volume I, Usi e convenzioni di Guerra, SMD-G-014, Stato Maggiore della Difesa, I Reparto, Ufficio Addestramento e Regolamenti, Rome, 1991, Vol. I, § 60.
Italy
Italy’s Combatant’s Manual (1998) states: “Parlementaires, i.e. those who request to meet with the Commanding Officer of the enemy unit to discuss a ceasefire or to surrender, are protected by the ‘White flag’”. 
Italy, Manuale del Combattente, SME 1000/A/2, Stato Maggiore Esercito/Reparto Impiego delle Forze, Ufficio Dottrina, Addestramento e Regolamenti, 1998, § 247.
Netherlands
The Military Manual (1993) of the Netherlands defines a parlementaire as “a person who has been authorized by one of the belligerents to enter into negotiations with the other party and who advances bearing a white flag”. 
Netherlands, Toepassing Humanitair Oorlogsrecht, Voorschift No. 27-412/1, Koninklijke Landmacht, Ministerie van Defensie, 1993, p. IV-4.
Netherlands
The Military Manual (2005) of the Netherlands states: “A person who is authorized by one of the belligerents to parley with the other party, and who presents himself under a white flag, is called a ‘parlementaire’.” 
Netherlands, Humanitair Oorlogsrecht: Handleiding, Voorschift No. 27-412, Koninklijke Landmacht, Militair Juridische Dienst, 2005, § 0419.
New Zealand
New Zealand’s Military Manual (1992) notes: “Negotiations between belligerent commanders are normally conducted, at least in the first instance, by intermediaries known as parlementaires … Parlementaires normally operate under a flag of truce.” 
New Zealand, Interim Law of Armed Conflict Manual, DM 112, New Zealand Defence Force, Headquarters, Directorate of Legal Services, Wellington, November 1992, § 406(1) and (2).
Nigeria
Nigeria’s Manual on the Laws of War states: “The usual agents in non-hostile intercourse between belligerents are known as parlementaires. The parlementaires must carry a white flag … [and] an authorisation in writing signed by the sending commander.” 
Nigeria, The Laws of War, by Lt. Col. L. Ode PSC, Nigerian Army, Lagos, undated, § 24.
Peru
Peru’s IHL Manual (2004) defines the term “parlementaire” as: “A person authorized by the military authorities to enter into direct parleys with the enemy.” 
Peru, Manual de Derecho Internacional Humanitario para las Fuerzas Armadas, Resolución Ministerial Nº 1394-2004-DE/CCFFAA/CDIH-FFAA, Lima, 1 December 2004, Annex 9, Glossary of Terms.
Peru
Peru’s IHL and Human Rights Manual (2010) defines “parlementaire” in its Glossary of Terms as: “A person authorized by the military authorities to enter into direct parleys with the enemy.” 
Peru, Manual de Derecho Internacional Humanitario y Derechos Humanos para las Fuerzas Armadas, Resolución Ministerial No. 049-2010/DE/VPD, Lima, 21 May 2010, p. 411.
Russian Federation
The Russian Federation’s Regulations on the Application of IHL (2001) states:
[P]arlementaires are persons authorized by their command to enter into communication with the enemy command and coming with a white flag. The parlementaire as well as persons who may accompany him (the trumpeter, bugler or drummer, the flag-bearer and the interpreter) have a right to inviolability. 
Russian Federation, Regulations on the Application of International Humanitarian Law by the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation, Ministry of Defence of the Russian Federation, Moscow, 8 August 2001, § 1; see also §§ 7 (prohibited methods of warfare) and 67 (armistice and termination of combat operations).
Spain
Spain’s Field Regulations (1882) provides that a parlementaire is “the official sent to the enemy with formal orders and powers to negotiate agreements, capitulations; to request suspension of arms, truce or armistice; to present claims or observations about violations of agreements”. 
Spain, El Reglamento para el Servicio de Campaña, 4 January 1882, § 901.
Spain
Spain’s LOAC Manual (1996) defines parlementaires as “the persons authorized by one of the parties to enter into negotiations with the adversary, and who advances bearing a white flag”. 
Spain, Orientaciones. El Derecho de los Conflictos Armados, Publicación OR7-004, 2 Tomos, aprobado por el Estado Mayor del Ejército, Division de Operaciones, 18 March 1996, Vol. I, § 2.6.c.(1).
Spain
Spain’s LOAC Manual (2007) states: “Parlementaires are those who have been authorized by one of the parties to the conflict to enter into communication with the other, bearing a white flag.” 
Spain, Orientaciones. El Derecho de los Conflictos Armados, Tomo 1, Publicación OR7–004, (Edición Segunda), Mando de Adiestramiento y Doctrina, Dirección de Doctrina, Orgánica y Materiales, 2 November 2007, § 2.6.c.(1); see also §§ 5.2.a.(1).(b) and 7.5.c.
Switzerland
Switzerland’s Basic Military Manual (1987) defines a parlementaire as a person “who is authorized by one of the belligerents to enter into communication with the other and who advances bearing a white flag”. 
Switzerland, Lois et coutumes de la guerre (Extrait et commentaire), Règlement 51.7/II f, Armée Suisse, 1987, Article 13.
Ukraine
Ukraine’s IHL Manual (2004) states: “‘Parlementaires’ means persons designated by the military command to negotiate with the enemy command.” 
Ukraine, Manual on the Application of IHL Rules, Ministry of Defence, 11 September 2004, § 1.2.37.
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
The UK Military Manual (1958) states: “The usual agents in the non-hostile intercourse of belligerent armies are known as parlementaires.” 
United Kingdom, The Law of War on Land being Part III of the Manual of Military Law, The War Office, HMSO, 1958, § 389.
The manual also states:
A person to be regarded as a parlementaire must be authorised by one of the belligerents to enter into communication with the other and must present himself under cover of a white flag. The authorisation [for a parlementaire to enter into negotiations] should be in writing and be signed by the sending commander. 
United Kingdom, The Law of War on Land being Part III of the Manual of Military Law, The War Office, HMSO, 1958, § 393.
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
The UK LOAC Manual (2004) states:
Negotiations between belligerent commanders are normally conducted, at least in the first instance, by an intermediary, known technically as a “parlementaire”, normally operating under a flag of truce, who has been authorized in writing under the signature of the sending commander. 
United Kingdom, The Manual of the Law of Armed Conflict, Ministry of Defence, 1 July 2004, § 10.4.
United States of America
The US Field Manual (1956) provides that parlementaires are “agents employed by commanders to go in person within the enemy lines for the purpose of communicating or negotiating openly and directly with the enemy commander”. 
United States, Field Manual 27-10, The Law of Land Warfare, US Department of the Army, 18 July 1956, as modified by Change No. 1, 15 July 1976, § 459.
The manual states: “A person is regarded as a parlementaire who has been authorized by one of the belligerents to enter into communication with the other and who advances bearing a white flag.” 
United States, Field Manual 27-10, The Law of Land Warfare, US Department of the Army, 18 July 1956, as modified by Change No. 1, 15 July 1976, § 460.
Moreover, the manual states: “Parlementaires must be duly authorized in a written instrument signed by the commander of the forces.” 
United States, Field Manual 27-10, The Law of Land Warfare, US Department of the Army, 18 July 1956, as modified by Change No. 1, 15 July 1976, § 462.
Yugoslavia, Socialist Federal Republic of
The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia’s Military Manual (1988) defines a parlementaire as “a person who is authorized by one party to the conflict to enter into communication in its name with another party in order to negotiate a specific question or to deliver a message”. 
Yugoslavia, Socialist Federal Republic, Propisi o Primeri Pravila Medjunarodnog Ratnog Prava u Oruzanim Snagama SFRJ, PrU-2, Savezni Sekretarijat za Narodnu Odbranu (Pravna Uprava), 1988, § 116.
The manual provides that “a parlementaire can be escorted by other persons”, such as an interpreter. 
Yugoslavia, Socialist Federal Republic, Propisi o Primeri Pravila Medjunarodnog Ratnog Prava u Oruzanim Snagama SFRJ, PrU-2, Savezni Sekretarijat za Narodnu Odbranu (Pravna Uprava), 1988, § 118.
The manual also states: “A parlementaire or a person in his escort is required to carry the white flag of parlementaires.” 
Yugoslavia, Socialist Federal Republic, Propisi o Primeri Pravila Medjunarodnog Ratnog Prava u Oruzanim Snagama SFRJ, PrU-2, Savezni Sekretarijat za Narodnu Odbranu (Pravna Uprava), 1988, § 119.
In addition, the manual states: “A parlementaire should have a written authorization of the person in charge for making contact with the representative of the enemy side.” 
Yugoslavia, Socialist Federal Republic, Propisi o Primeri Pravila Medjunarodnog Ratnog Prava u Oruzanim Snagama SFRJ, PrU-2, Savezni Sekretarijat za Narodnu Odbranu (Pravna Uprava), 1988, § 123.
Italy
Italy’s Law of War Decree (1938), as amended in 1992, defines a parlementaire as “a person authorized by military authority to enter into direct communication with the enemy. The parlementaire must be provided with a document proving his status and powers and must advance with a white flag.” 
Italy, Law of War Decree, 1938, as amended in 1992, Article 67.
Yugoslavia, Socialist Federal Republic of
The commentary on the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia’s Penal Code (1976), as amended in 2001, states: “A parlementaire is a person who, under authorization by one Party to the war or armed conflict, conveys a message to another Party.” 
Yugoslavia, Socialist Federal Republic, Penal Code, 1976, as amended in 2001, commentary on Article 149.
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