Practice Relating to Rule 59. Improper Use of the Distinctive Emblems of the Geneva Conventions
Togo’s Code of Military Justice (1981) punishes “any individual who, [in time of war] in the area of operations, uses publicly and without being entitled to do so the armlet, flag or emblem of the Red Cross, or equivalent armlets, flags or emblems”.
Togo’s Emblem Law (1999) punishes:
whoever, without being entitled to do so, makes use of the emblem of the Red Cross or Red Crescent, of the words “Red Cross” or “Red Crescent”, of a distinctive signal or of any other sign, denomination or signal constituting an imitation thereof or capable of creating confusion, whatever the purpose of this use.