Practice Relating to Rule 57. Ruses of War
In certain circumstances, ruses of war may become almost tantamount to perfidy. Here the important difference is that ruses of war are not based on betrayal of the adversary’s confidence. Instead, the intention of a ruse is to mislead the adversary, which can lead to incorrect deployment of his forces or to reckless actions which, for example, prematurely reveal his forces, intended tactics or assault objectives. The [1907 Hague Regulations] states that it is permitted to use ruses of war, and the same authority is given in [the 1977 Additional Protocol I], Article 37:2. Typical examples of ruses are giving false information on the size of one’s own forces, position and intentions, or hiding one’s combat forces with camouflage, or misleading the adversary by means of mock objectives and mock operations.