Practice Relating to Rule 65. Perfidy
Section F. Simulation of protected status by using the distinctive emblems of the Geneva Conventions
The Military Manual (1993) of the Netherlands states:
Treachery means misusing the protection given by the law of war, for example misusing the Red Cross … [The 1977 Additional Protocol I] gives a number of examples of treacherous behaviour: … feigning to possess the status of civilian or non combatant (for example medical personnel or the personnel of the Red Cross).
The Military Manual (2005) of the Netherlands states:
It is forbidden to misuse the recognized emblems of the Red Cross and Red Crescent. It is also forbidden to make unauthorized use of other signs and emblems mentioned in the conventions on the law of war. These include signs of civilian protection and cultural property. Signs mean illuminated signs and electronic communication and identification, as governed by AP [1977 Additional Protocol I] Annex I.
Under the International Crimes Act (2003) of the Netherlands, it is a crime, during an international armed conflict, to commit “the following acts, when they are committed intentionally and in violation of the relevant provisions of Additional Protocol (I) and cause death or serious injury to body or health: … the perfidious use … of the distinctive emblem of the red cross or red crescent”.