Practice Relating to Rule 147. Reprisals against Protected Objects
Section C. Cultural property
The Military Manual (1993) of the Netherlands, in a chapter dealing with reprisals and referring, inter alia
, to Article 53 of the 1977 Additional Protocol I, states: “No reprisals may be undertaken against cultural objects (historical monuments, works of art, places of worship, etc.).”
The Military Handbook (1995) of the Netherlands states: “Reprisals against cultural property are prohibited.”
The Military Manual (2005) of the Netherlands states:
In the history of warfare, reprisals carried out have often exceeded the set limits. This has led to the current prohibition, in the humanitarian law of war and specifically in AP I [1977 Additional Protocol I], of reprisals against several groups of people and objects.
The following are now forbidden as reprisals:
- attacks on cultural property (historic monuments, works of art, places of worship, etc.).
In its chapter on behaviour in battle, the manual states: “No reprisals may be made against cultural property and buildings for religious worship.”
In its chapter on the protection of the civilian population, the manual states that “reprisals against protected persons and their property are prohibited”.