Practice Relating to Rule 142. Instruction in International Humanitarian Law within Armed Forces
Mexico’s Army and Air Force Manual (2009) states:
The publication of this manual by the Ministry of National Defence of Mexico contributes to fulfilling the obligation undertaken by the Government of Mexico on signing the  Geneva Conventions to ensure that these instruments are disseminated as widely as possible in both peacetime and wartime and that their study is incorporated into the military instruction and training system, so that the members of the armed forces are familiar with the principles enshrined in them.
The High Command, which is responsible for organizing, managing, preparing, educating, instructing, training and developing the land and air forces, has taken the steps necessary to ensure that the members of these forces are aware of their obligations under the above-mentioned Conventions, with a view to preventing violations of the provisions of international humanitarian law.
In a section on the 1949 Geneva Convention II, the manual also states:
The High Contracting Parties undertake, in time of peace and in time of war, to disseminate the text of the Convention as widely as possible in their respective countries, and, in particular, to include the study of the Convention in their programmes of military … instruction, so that the principles that it contains may become known … to the armed forces.
In 2010, in its written replies to the list of issues to be taken up in consideration of the fifth periodic report of Mexico to the Human Rights Committee, Mexico stated:
Since 2000, SEDENA (the National Ministry of Defence) has regularly been carrying out a programme designed to promote and strengthen human rights and international humanitarian law. As part of this programme and as a matter of priority, courses, conferences and talks are provided to all military personnel with the objective of preventing and eradicating torture.
In 2010, in its report to the UN General Assembly on the status of the 1977 Additional Protocols, Mexico stated:
Mexico’s armed forces have incorporated instruction and training in international humanitarian law into military doctrine and manuals, and have developed ongoing training activities, in order to sensitize military personnel to the need to ensure that all their activities are conducted in accordance with international humanitarian law.
The education and training measures taken include the use of educational and military training systems for the dissemination of international humanitarian law, as well as other measures to further this objective. Efforts regarding dissemination are listed below, and where training is concerned, they are conducted in coordination with the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC).
1. Lecture series and courses in international humanitarian law are organized periodically for all military personnel, whether in the Ministry of Defence or in the Ministry of the Navy.
2. The armed forces of Mexico have staff specialized in international humanitarian law who are responsible for delivering lectures. They also participate in various forums to update the doctrine in this area. A training course for lecturers in international humanitarian law is offered at the Centre for Army and Air Force Studies.
3. International humanitarian law is included in the curricula of all institutions in the military training system of the Army and Air Force’s units, establishments and installations. Training schools, including the Centre for Advanced Naval Studies, also provide training in international humanitarian law and human rights.
5. Examinations in international humanitarian law are held as part of the special and general competitions for promotion to the next higher rank.
6. All military personnel are required to carry the international humanitarian law handbook at all times.
7. Military personnel carry out tactical exercises for the purpose of applying international humanitarian law.
8. National and international conferences and activities related to international humanitarian law are held with the support of ICRC, attended by members of the Mexican armed forces.
9. Published material includes the following:
(a) The four Geneva Conventions and Protocol I of 1977
(b) International humanitarian law handbook
(c) Booklet containing brief summary of battle conduct
(d) The Convention with Respect to the Laws and Customs of War
(e) The Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict.
10. Bibliographical material related to international humanitarian law, provided by ICRC, is distributed to naval and military educational institutions to be used as teaching and reference support.
In 2010, in its written replies to the Committee on the Rights of the Child concerning Mexico’s initial report under the 2000 Optional Protocol on the Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict, Mexico stated:
The Ministry of Defence has also organized various training and awareness-raising programmes for its personnel:
(b) The Programme to Promote and Strengthen Human Rights and International Humanitarian Law, which is updated annually and aims to accommodate the requirements of the Armed Forces, the Mexican legal system and the international agreements that Mexico has signed and ratified. Its main objectives are to:
(ii) Carry out activities to promote and increase respect for human rights and international humanitarian law among military personnel, by inculcating strict adherence to the law through the military training and education systems.
Mexico also stated:
Staff at the Ministry of the Navy receive training courses on human rights and international humanitarian law that cover the rights of the child and the participation of children in armed conflicts. Given the importance of the Protocol, the Ministry is planning to hold specific talks or academic seminars on the subject.