Règle correspondante
Sri Lanka
Practice Relating to Rule 97. Human Shields
In 2011, in its Humanitarian Operation Factual Analysis July 2006–May 2009, Sri Lanka’s Ministry of Defence stated:
162. While the Humanitarian Operation in the East was reaching its climax, it was decided to open a frontage in the Wanni theatre. …
166. During the Humanitarian Operation in the East, the strategy adopted with careful use of terrain imperatives by the Security Forces successfully managed to separate terrorists from civilians to a large extent. This denied the LTTE [Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam] the opportunity of exploiting civilians as a human shield, except at Vakarai. However, having learned a lesson in the East, the LTTE prevented civilians escaping from the initial stages of the operation in the Wanni. …
167. Having planned from the inception of the Wanni operation to use civilians as a human shield, the LTTE compelled civilians to move to points behind their rear lines to use them when the occasion arose.
173. When Security Forces entered the town of Kilinochchi, LTTE’s administrative hub, all civilians had been driven to Vishvamadhu. The LTTE’s aim was to create a human shield to block the Security Forces’ advance to Puthukudirippu, where the LTTE leadership was in its military stronghold. 
Sri Lanka, Ministry of Defence, Humanitarian Operation Factual Analysis July 2006–May 2009, July 2011, §§ 162, 166–167 and 173.
The Ministry of Defence further stated:
184. The Humanitarian Operation that commenced in Mavil Aru, converted itself to a civilian rescue mission in the last phases of the war as the civilians were forcibly held against their will by the LTTE, in the areas of Putumattalan, Karayamullivaikkal and Vellamullivaikkal, where geographical location (between the lagoon and the sea) made it difficult to create safe passages for the civilians to cross over to the liberated areas.
187. … During this period, there was a considerable increase in the atrocities committed by the LTTE against the incarcerated civilian population, i.e., … permanent deployment of civilians as human shields[.] 
Sri Lanka, Ministry of Defence, Humanitarian Operation Factual Analysis July 2006–May 2009, July 2011, §§ 184 and 187.
The Ministry of Defence also stated: “The numerous requests from the international community and the Government of Sri Lanka to the LTTE, to refrain from using civilians as human shields and for their release, had been unheeded by the LTTE.” 
Sri Lanka, Ministry of Defence, Humanitarian Operation Factual Analysis July 2006–May 2009, July 2011, § 207.
The Ministry of Defence further stated: “On 18 May 2009, Sri Lanka defeated the LTTE, bringing to an end three decades of conflict and suffering.” 
Sri Lanka, Ministry of Defence, Humanitarian Operation Factual Analysis July 2006–May 2009, July 2011, § 12.
In 2012, in its fifth periodic report to the Human Rights Committee, Sri Lanka stated:
17. The GoSL [Government of Sri Lanka] acted with restraint to protect civilians throughout the Humanitarian Operation. A “zero civilian casualty” policy was adopted, and Security Forces made every effort to minimize collateral damage during the armed conflict. As the Humanitarian Operation progressed in the North an increasingly isolated and desperate LTTE [Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam] leadership surrounded itself with a human shield comprising many thousands of civilians for self-preservation. …
18. The GoSL did not, at any stage, corral the civilian population in the Wanni as alleged by some quarters. The forced movement and corralling of civilians was an act of the LTTE, which blatantly used the civilians as a human shield. 
Sri Lanka, Fifth periodic report to the Human Rights Committee, 31 January 2013, UN Doc. CCPR/C/LKA/5, submitted 29 October 2012, §§ 17–18.