Practice Relating to Rule 106. Conditions for Prisoner-of-War Status
Kenya’s LOAC Manual (1997) states:
While engaged in combat action or in a military operation preparatory to it, combatants must distinguish themselves from the civilian population. It is customary for members of organized armed forces to wear uniform. Members of any other militias, volunteer corps or organized resistance movements wear a fixed recognizable distinctive sign or at least [carry] their arms openly.
Kenya’s LOAC Manual (1997) states that: “Participants in a levée en masse
… are considered as combatants if: (a) they carry their arms openly [and] (b) they comply with the law of armed conflict.”
Kenya’s LOAC manual (1997) states:
All combatants are required to distinguish themselves from the civilian population, usually by wearing uniform. However, where because of unusual combat conditions they are unable to do so, they do not lose their combatant status provided that they carry their arms openly
(a) during every military engagement and
(b) as long as they are visible to the enemy while engaged in a military deployment
, that is, in any movement towards a place from which or where a combat action is to take place.
[emphasis in original]